Gamma

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  • Gamma For Latin ɣ, see Latin gamma. For other uses, see Gamma (disambiguation). Gamma (uppercase Γ, lowercase γ; Greek: Γάμμα Gámma) is the third letter of the Greek alphabet. In the system of Greek numerals it has a value of 3. It was de- rived from the Phoenician letter Gimel . Letters that arose from gamma include the Roman C and G and the Cyrillic letters Г and Ґ.[1] 1 Uses 1.1 Greek The alphabet on a black figure vessel, with a Λ-shaped gamma In Ancient Greek, gamma represented a voiced velar stop /ɡ/. In Modern Greek, it represents a voiced fricative. It is realized either as a palatal /ʝ/ (before a front vowel, /e, i/), or as a velar /ɣ/ (in all other environments). Both in Ancient and inModernGreek, before other velars (κ, χ, ξ k, kh, ks), gamma represents a velar nasal /ŋ/. A double gamma γγ represents the sequence /ŋɡ/ (phoneti- cally varying [ŋɡ~ɡ]) or /ŋɣ/. 1.2 International Phonetic Alphabet In the International Phonetic Alphabet, lowercase gamma (ɣ) represents the voiced velar fricative. A lowercase gamma that lies above the baseline rather than crossing it (ɤ) represents the close-mid back unrounded vowel. 1.3 Mathematics and science 1.3.1 Lower case The lower-case letter is used as a symbol for: � Chromatic number of a graph, sometimes � (Chi) is used, which is also used for the Euler characteristic � Gamma radiation in nuclear physics � The photon, the elementary particle of light � Surface energy in materials science � The Lorentz factor in theory of relativity � The heat capacity ratio Cp/Cv in thermodynamics � The activity coefficient in thermodynamics � The gyromagnetic ratio in electromagnetism � Gamma oscillation in neuroscience � Gamma motoneurons in neuroscience � Gamma is a non-SI metric unit of measure of mass equal to one microgram (1 μg).[2] This always-rare use is currently deprecated. � Gamma is also a non-SI unit of measure of magnetic flux density, sometimes used in geophysics, equal to 1 nanotesla (nT). � The power by which the luminance of an image is increased in gamma correction � The Euler–Mascheroni constant � In mechanical engineering: � Specific weight � The shear rate of a fluid is represented by a lower case gamma with a dot above it: _ � Austenite (also known as γ-iron), a metal- lic non-magnetic allotrope or solid solution of iron. � The gamma carbon is the third carbon attached to a functional group in Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry nomenclature; see Alpha and beta car- bon 1
  • 2 4 REFERENCES 1.3.2 Upper case The upper-case letter � is used as a symbol for: � In mathematics, the gamma function (usually writ- ten as � -function) is an extension of the factorial to complex numbers � In probability theory and statistics, the gamma dis- tribution is a two-parameter family of continuous probability distributions. � Circulation in fluid mechanics � As reflection coefficient in physics and electrical en- gineering � The tape alphabet of a Turing machine � The Feferman–Schütte ordinal Γ0 1.3.3 Meteorology � Gamma was one of the names used in the 2005 At- lantic hurricane season as Tropical Storm Gamma. 2 Technical notes 2.1 HTML The HTML entities for uppercase and lowercase gamma are Γ and γ. 2.2 Unicode � Greek Gamma � Coptic Gamma � Latin / phonetic Gamma � CJK Square Gamma � Technical / Mathematical Gamma These characters are used only as mathematical symbols. Stylized Greek text should be encoded using the normal Greek letters, withmarkup and formatting to indicate text style. 3 See also � Г, г - Ge (Cyrillic) � G, g - Latin 4 References [1] “Greek Alphabet Symbols”. Rapid Tables. Retrieved 25 August 2014. [2] François Cardarelli (2003). Encyclopaedia of Scientific Units, Weights and Measures. Springer-Verlag London Ltd. ISBN 879-1-4471-1122-1.
  • 3 5 Text and image sources, contributors, and licenses 5.1 Text � Gamma Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gamma?oldid=638062514 Contributors: Damian Yerrick, Kpjas, Uriyan, Tarquin, Fnielsen, Rgamble, DrBob, Heron, Michael Hardy, Tim Starling, DopefishJustin, Stephen C. Carlson, Ixfd64, Notheruser, LittleDan, Timwi, Paul- L~enwiki, Raul654, JorgeGG, Rogper~enwiki, Robbot, Fredrik, Nurg, Postdlf, Yacht, Bkell, Wereon, Mintleaf~enwiki, BenFrantzDale, Herbee, Monedula, Bensaccount, Gracefool, AlistairMcMillan, Karl Naylor, Macrakis, Cevlakohn, JDoolin, Grstain, Jørgen Friis Bak, Rich Farmbrough, Ajplmr, El C, Kwamikagami, Robotje, Shenme, Drange net, Obradovic Goran, Linuxlad, Jérôme, Alansohn, Sl, Sobolewski, Super-Magician, Gene Nygaard, HenryLi, Kenyon, No1bassoonist, Jef-Infojef, Novacatz, Woohookitty, Revjmyoung, Evilmoo, Noet- ica, Nema Fakei, Qwertyus, Pjetter, FlaBot, Drumguy8800, Fresheneesz, Kevinhksouth, Atitarev, Glenn L, Chobot, 334a, E Pluribus Anthony, Siddhant, YurikBot, Borgx, Canageek, NawlinWiki, Spike Wilbury, Aeusoes1, Test-tools~enwiki, Megapixie, Zwobot, Lock- esdonkey, BOT-Superzerocool, JoeBorn, Doktorbuk, JuJube, GrinBot~enwiki, SmackBot, Unyoyega, KocjoBot~enwiki, AndreasJS, Es- kimbot, Ciacchi, Audacity, Loser0, Akanemoto, Royboycrashfan, Tamfang, Cybercobra, Pwjb, DMacks, Kotjze, SashatoBot, Adj08, A. Parrot, Avs5221, Jurohi, Richard F., Pvodenski, Vanisaac, JohnCD, Sa21, Future Perfect at Sunrise, Ameliorate!, UberScienceNerd, Men- tifisto, AntiVandalBot, Hamaryns, .anacondabot, Magioladitis, Nimic86, Brendan gibat, Numbo3, L'Aquatique, Idioma-bot, VolkovBot, MenasimBot, Philip Trueman, TXiKiBoT, Erik the Red 2, Rei-bot, Anonymous Dissident, Joshtonc3188, Fingerslsu, Grk1011, Brianga, AlleborgoBot, SieBot, BotMultichill, ToePeu.bot, Formerly the IP-Address 24.22.227.53, Drdan14, BenoniBot~enwiki, Wiknerd, Clue- Bot, Nhakimi, Alexbot, SpikeToronto, El bot de la dieta, Fallacia83~enwiki, Vanished User 1004, DumZiBoT, SilvonenBot, Addbot, Proofreader77, Leszek Jańczuk, SpillingBot, Erutuon, Luckas-bot, Stub12718696, Amirobot, Rubinbot, Galoubet, JackieBot, Piano non troppo, AdjustShift, Mahmudmasri, Tchoř, ArthurBot, Xqbot, Gigemag76, RibotBOT, Kyng, Kompar~enwiki, Erik9bot, J7j, Xskillx4, D'ohBot, Louperibot, MastiBot, Marinhopaiva, FoxBot, TAIntedCHInese, Dinamik-bot, Hriber, Tbhotch, Marscosta, EmausBot, Lunaibis, The Mysterious El Willstro, Rosalina2427, Marco3769, ChuispastonBot, Wıkınger, AUN4, Movses-bot, Divega, TomeHale, Jimw338, ChrisGualtieri, Am0210, ElHef, Esmost and Anonymous: 109 5.2 Images � File:Commons-logo.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/4/4a/Commons-logo.svg License: ? Contributors: ? Original artist: ? � File:Folder_Hexagonal_Icon.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/4/48/Folder_Hexagonal_Icon.svg License: Cc-by- sa-3.0 Contributors: ? Original artist: ? � File:Gamma_uc_lc.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/52/Gamma_uc_lc.svg License: Public domain Con- tributors: Own work Original artist: Dcoetzee, F l a n k e r � File:Greek_Digamma_normal.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4c/Greek_Digamma_normal.svg Li- cense: Public domain Contributors: Own work, based on C. Faulmann, Schriftzeichen und Alphabete aller Zeiten und Völker, Wien 1880, and Edward M. Thompson, An introduction to Greek and Latin Paleography, Oxford 1912. Original artist: Fut.Perf. � File:Greek_Eta_tack.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/3e/Greek_Eta_tack.svg License: Public domain Contributors: Own work, based on C. Faulmann, Schriftzeichen und Alphabete aller Zeiten und Völker, Wien 1880, and Edward M. Thomp- son, An introduction to Greek and Latin Paleography, Oxford 1912. Original artist: Fut.Perf. � File:Greek_Koppa_normal.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/5c/Greek_Koppa_normal.svg License: Public domain Contributors: Own work, based on C. Faulmann, Schriftzeichen und Alphabete aller Zeiten und Völker, Wien 1880, and Edward M. Thompson, An introduction to Greek and Latin Paleography, Oxford 1912. Original artist: Fut.Perf. � File:Greek_Sampi_Ionian.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f9/Greek_Sampi_Ionian.svg License: Public domain Contributors: Own work Original artist: Future Perfect at Sunrise � File:Greek_San_slanted.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/65/Greek_San_slanted.svg License: Public do- main Contributors: Own work, based on C. Faulmann, Schriftzeichen und Alphabete aller Zeiten und Völker, Wien 1880, and Edward M. Thompson, An introduction to Greek and Latin Paleography, Oxford 1912. Original artist: Fut.Perf. � File:Greek_Sigma_01.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c9/Greek_Sigma_01.svg License: Public domain Contributors: Own work, based on glyph table used by Greek epigraphy website Poinikastas [1] Original artist: Fut.Perf. � File:NAMA_Alphabet_grec.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/df/NAMA_Alphabet_grec.jpg License: CC BY 2.5 Contributors: Marsyas (2007) Original artist: ? � File:Phoenician_gimel.png Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/90/Phoenician_gimel.png License: Public do- main Contributors: ? Original artist: ? � File:Symbol_book_class2.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/89/Symbol_book_class2.svg License: CC BY-SA 2.5 Contributors: Mad by Lokal_Profil by combining: Original artist: Lokal_Profil � File:Wiktionary-logo-en.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f8/Wiktionary-logo-en.svg License: Public do- main Contributors: Vector version of Image:Wiktionary-logo-en.png. Original artist: Vectorized by Fvasconcellos (talk · contribs), based on original logo tossed together by Brion Vibber 5.3 Content license � Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Uses Greek International Phonetic Alphabet Mathematics and science Lower case Upper case Meteorology Technical notes HTML Unicode See also References Text and image sources, contributors, and licenses Text Images Content license
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an exploration of what gamma is
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  • Gamma For Latin ɣ, see Latin gamma. For other uses, see Gamma (disambiguation). Gamma (uppercase Γ, lowercase γ; Greek: Γάμμα Gámma) is the third letter of the Greek alphabet. In the system of Greek numerals it has a value of 3. It was de- rived from the Phoenician letter Gimel . Letters that arose from gamma include the Roman C and G and the Cyrillic letters Г and Ґ.[1] 1 Uses 1.1 Greek The alphabet on a black figure vessel, with a Λ-shaped gamma In Ancient Greek, gamma represented a voiced velar stop /ɡ/. In Modern Greek, it represents a voiced fricative. It is realized either as a palatal /ʝ/ (before a front vowel, /e, i/), or as a velar /ɣ/ (in all other environments). Both in Ancient and inModernGreek, before other velars (κ, χ, ξ k, kh, ks), gamma represents a velar nasal /ŋ/. A double gamma γγ represents the sequence /ŋɡ/ (phoneti- cally varying [ŋɡ~ɡ]) or /ŋɣ/. 1.2 International Phonetic Alphabet In the International Phonetic Alphabet, lowercase gamma (ɣ) represents the voiced velar fricative. A lowercase gamma that lies above the baseline rather than crossing it (ɤ) represents the close-mid back unrounded vowel. 1.3 Mathematics and science 1.3.1 Lower case The lower-case letter is used as a symbol for: � Chromatic number of a graph, sometimes � (Chi) is used, which is also used for the Euler characteristic � Gamma radiation in nuclear physics � The photon, the elementary particle of light � Surface energy in materials science � The Lorentz factor in theory of relativity � The heat capacity ratio Cp/Cv in thermodynamics � The activity coefficient in thermodynamics � The gyromagnetic ratio in electromagnetism � Gamma oscillation in neuroscience � Gamma motoneurons in neuroscience � Gamma is a non-SI metric unit of measure of mass equal to one microgram (1 μg).[2] This always-rare use is currently deprecated. � Gamma is also a non-SI unit of measure of magnetic flux density, sometimes used in geophysics, equal to 1 nanotesla (nT). � The power by which the luminance of an image is increased in gamma correction � The Euler–Mascheroni constant � In mechanical engineering: � Specific weight � The shear rate of a fluid is represented by a lower case gamma with a dot above it: _ � Austenite (also known as γ-iron), a metal- lic non-magnetic allotrope or solid solution of iron. � The gamma carbon is the third carbon attached to a functional group in Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry nomenclature; see Alpha and beta car- bon 1
  • 2 4 REFERENCES 1.3.2 Upper case The upper-case letter � is used as a symbol for: � In mathematics, the gamma function (usually writ- ten as � -function) is an extension of the factorial to complex numbers � In probability theory and statistics, the gamma dis- tribution is a two-parameter family of continuous probability distributions. � Circulation in fluid mechanics � As reflection coefficient in physics and electrical en- gineering � The tape alphabet of a Turing machine � The Feferman–Schütte ordinal Γ0 1.3.3 Meteorology � Gamma was one of the names used in the 2005 At- lantic hurricane season as Tropical Storm Gamma. 2 Technical notes 2.1 HTML The HTML entities for uppercase and lowercase gamma are Γ and γ. 2.2 Unicode � Greek Gamma � Coptic Gamma � Latin / phonetic Gamma � CJK Square Gamma � Technical / Mathematical Gamma These characters are used only as mathematical symbols. Stylized Greek text should be encoded using the normal Greek letters, withmarkup and formatting to indicate text style. 3 See also � Г, г - Ge (Cyrillic) � G, g - Latin 4 References [1] “Greek Alphabet Symbols”. Rapid Tables. Retrieved 25 August 2014. [2] François Cardarelli (2003). Encyclopaedia of Scientific Units, Weights and Measures. Springer-Verlag London Ltd. ISBN 879-1-4471-1122-1.
  • 3 5 Text and image sources, contributors, and licenses 5.1 Text � Gamma Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gamma?oldid=638062514 Contributors: Damian Yerrick, Kpjas, Uriyan, Tarquin, Fnielsen, Rgamble, DrBob, Heron, Michael Hardy, Tim Starling, DopefishJustin, Stephen C. Carlson, Ixfd64, Notheruser, LittleDan, Timwi, Paul- L~enwiki, Raul654, JorgeGG, Rogper~enwiki, Robbot, Fredrik, Nurg, Postdlf, Yacht, Bkell, Wereon, Mintleaf~enwiki, BenFrantzDale, Herbee, Monedula, Bensaccount, Gracefool, AlistairMcMillan, Karl Naylor, Macrakis, Cevlakohn, JDoolin, Grstain, Jørgen Friis Bak, Rich Farmbrough, Ajplmr, El C, Kwamikagami, Robotje, Shenme, Drange net, Obradovic Goran, Linuxlad, Jérôme, Alansohn, Sl, Sobolewski, Super-Magician, Gene Nygaard, HenryLi, Kenyon, No1bassoonist, Jef-Infojef, Novacatz, Woohookitty, Revjmyoung, Evilmoo, Noet- ica, Nema Fakei, Qwertyus, Pjetter, FlaBot, Drumguy8800, Fresheneesz, Kevinhksouth, Atitarev, Glenn L, Chobot, 334a, E Pluribus Anthony, Siddhant, YurikBot, Borgx, Canageek, NawlinWiki, Spike Wilbury, Aeusoes1, Test-tools~enwiki, Megapixie, Zwobot, Lock- esdonkey, BOT-Superzerocool, JoeBorn, Doktorbuk, JuJube, GrinBot~enwiki, SmackBot, Unyoyega, KocjoBot~enwiki, AndreasJS, Es- kimbot, Ciacchi, Audacity, Loser0, Akanemoto, Royboycrashfan, Tamfang, Cybercobra, Pwjb, DMacks, Kotjze, SashatoBot, Adj08, A. Parrot, Avs5221, Jurohi, Richard F., Pvodenski, Vanisaac, JohnCD, Sa21, Future Perfect at Sunrise, Ameliorate!, UberScienceNerd, Men- tifisto, AntiVandalBot, Hamaryns, .anacondabot, Magioladitis, Nimic86, Brendan gibat, Numbo3, L'Aquatique, Idioma-bot, VolkovBot, MenasimBot, Philip Trueman, TXiKiBoT, Erik the Red 2, Rei-bot, Anonymous Dissident, Joshtonc3188, Fingerslsu, Grk1011, Brianga, AlleborgoBot, SieBot, BotMultichill, ToePeu.bot, Formerly the IP-Address 24.22.227.53, Drdan14, BenoniBot~enwiki, Wiknerd, Clue- Bot, Nhakimi, Alexbot, SpikeToronto, El bot de la dieta, Fallacia83~enwiki, Vanished User 1004, DumZiBoT, SilvonenBot, Addbot, Proofreader77, Leszek Jańczuk, SpillingBot, Erutuon, Luckas-bot, Stub12718696, Amirobot, Rubinbot, Galoubet, JackieBot, Piano non troppo, AdjustShift, Mahmudmasri, Tchoř, ArthurBot, Xqbot, Gigemag76, RibotBOT, Kyng, Kompar~enwiki, Erik9bot, J7j, Xskillx4, D'ohBot, Louperibot, MastiBot, Marinhopaiva, FoxBot, TAIntedCHInese, Dinamik-bot, Hriber, Tbhotch, Marscosta, EmausBot, Lunaibis, The Mysterious El Willstro, Rosalina2427, Marco3769, ChuispastonBot, Wıkınger, AUN4, Movses-bot, Divega, TomeHale, Jimw338, ChrisGualtieri, Am0210, ElHef, Esmost and Anonymous: 109 5.2 Images � File:Commons-logo.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/4/4a/Commons-logo.svg License: ? Contributors: ? Original artist: ? � File:Folder_Hexagonal_Icon.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/4/48/Folder_Hexagonal_Icon.svg License: Cc-by- sa-3.0 Contributors: ? Original artist: ? � File:Gamma_uc_lc.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/52/Gamma_uc_lc.svg License: Public domain Con- tributors: Own work Original artist: Dcoetzee, F l a n k e r � File:Greek_Digamma_normal.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4c/Greek_Digamma_normal.svg Li- cense: Public domain Contributors: Own work, based on C. Faulmann, Schriftzeichen und Alphabete aller Zeiten und Völker, Wien 1880, and Edward M. Thompson, An introduction to Greek and Latin Paleography, Oxford 1912. Original artist: Fut.Perf. � File:Greek_Eta_tack.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/3e/Greek_Eta_tack.svg License: Public domain Contributors: Own work, based on C. Faulmann, Schriftzeichen und Alphabete aller Zeiten und Völker, Wien 1880, and Edward M. Thomp- son, An introduction to Greek and Latin Paleography, Oxford 1912. Original artist: Fut.Perf. � File:Greek_Koppa_normal.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/5c/Greek_Koppa_normal.svg License: Public domain Contributors: Own work, based on C. Faulmann, Schriftzeichen und Alphabete aller Zeiten und Völker, Wien 1880, and Edward M. Thompson, An introduction to Greek and Latin Paleography, Oxford 1912. Original artist: Fut.Perf. � File:Greek_Sampi_Ionian.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f9/Greek_Sampi_Ionian.svg License: Public domain Contributors: Own work Original artist: Future Perfect at Sunrise � File:Greek_San_slanted.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/65/Greek_San_slanted.svg License: Public do- main Contributors: Own work, based on C. Faulmann, Schriftzeichen und Alphabete aller Zeiten und Völker, Wien 1880, and Edward M. Thompson, An introduction to Greek and Latin Paleography, Oxford 1912. Original artist: Fut.Perf. � File:Greek_Sigma_01.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c9/Greek_Sigma_01.svg License: Public domain Contributors: Own work, based on glyph table used by Greek epigraphy website Poinikastas [1] Original artist: Fut.Perf. � File:NAMA_Alphabet_grec.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/df/NAMA_Alphabet_grec.jpg License: CC BY 2.5 Contributors: Marsyas (2007) Original artist: ? � File:Phoenician_gimel.png Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/90/Phoenician_gimel.png License: Public do- main Contributors: ? Original artist: ? � File:Symbol_book_class2.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/89/Symbol_book_class2.svg License: CC BY-SA 2.5 Contributors: Mad by Lokal_Profil by combining: Original artist: Lokal_Profil � File:Wiktionary-logo-en.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f8/Wiktionary-logo-en.svg License: Public do- main Contributors: Vector version of Image:Wiktionary-logo-en.png. Original artist: Vectorized by Fvasconcellos (talk · contribs), based on original logo tossed together by Brion Vibber 5.3 Content license � Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Uses Greek International Phonetic Alphabet Mathematics and science Lower case Upper case Meteorology Technical notes HTML Unicode See also References Text and image sources, contributors, and licenses Text Images Content license
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