internship report on building construction

Engineering

esmael-aragaw
  • Institute of technology School of civil and urban engineering FINAL INTERNSHIP REPORT By: ESMAEL ARAGAW SECTION: 08 ID.NO. : 0613/03 HOSTING COMPANY: K2N ARCHITECTURAL AND ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY PLC DURATION OF THE INTERNSHIP: 11/11/2013 to 21/02/2014 Submission date: 28/02/2014
  • HU ioT school of CUENg. Final internship report Written by: ESMAEL ARAGAW 2013/14 Page i Hosting company: K2N ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY PLC. Declaration I hereby declare that the project work entitled "FINAL INTERNSHIP REPORT" submitted to the HU School of civil and urban engineering, is a record of original work done by me under the guidance of my esteemed mentor DERIES BZUALEM and my site supervisor resident engineer MILAT. And this project work is submitted in the partial fulfillment of the requirements for the internship session of 2013/14 held for 4th year student of Hawassa university school of civil and urban engineering. The results embodied in this report have not been submitted to any other University or Institute for the award of any type of work. ABBROVED BY NAME OF SUPERVISOR: __________________ NAME OF MENTOR: _________________ SIGNITURE: __________ SIGNITURE: ___________ HOSTING COMPANY STAMP
  • HU ioT school of CUENg. Final internship report Written by: ESMAEL ARAGAW 2013/14 Page ii Hosting company: K2N ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY PLC. Acknowledgment First of all I would like to thank every families and friends that participate on my life and get me in this intensity and individuals who support and share idea and also helping me to be like this. I am very thankful to K2N ARCTICT AND ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY PLC. For having given me the opportunity to undertake my four month internship class in their working area. It was Avery good learning experience for me to have worked at this area. I would like to convey my heartiest thanks to resident engineer ANTENH and MILAT and all staff member works in Hawassa unit. I would also thank my mentor DERIES BIZUALEM for his endless support at site and in his office by consulting me how do things in the site and how to write this report in outstanding manner, All teachers of civil and urban engineering who brought me to my present performance and shape me like this during the last three successive years. Before I finish I would like to give my deepest thanks to all workers from the contractor and the consultant side starting from engineers to daily laborers. Also for those who do not listed in the above but support me in different areas I would like thank all. Name: Esmael Aragaw Date: 17/02/2014
  • HU ioT school of CUENg. Final internship report Written by: ESMAEL ARAGAW 2013/14 Page iii Hosting company: K2N ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY PLC. Abstract The internship report in broad-spectrum contains four chapters in which I try to explain my four month experience in my hosting company. The content of all chapters is broadly explained and it is constructed from the practical basis of the site work ended all months. In the opening chapter I give details to the company background including its mission, vision, the project those runs trough the company consultation. In this chapter I put all record or history and futurity of my hosting company with its official address. So, it is give details of the company in terms of reader can easily know and access the company. The second chapter is the most hunted chapter which explains my overall internship familiarity in the last successive months. This chapter is the main chapter and I record on it the overall work I have been executing. It gives a high light what I have been doing and main works of the construction industry. After all those chapters explained above I goes to the third chapter and explains the main benefits of the internship class in terms of different aspects and areas. It is obvious that the internship has a plus in terms of improving skills and different abilities as a whole. The advantages and gains of the internship putted in short and prices way to grasp the attention of readers and evaluators. The final and fourth chapter explains about the winding up and suggestion on the project that our company runs. Inside the site we get many things which are appropriate and inappropriate for work in building construction, thus I comment and give my recommendation in some conditions and workings.
  • HU ioT school of CUENg. Final internship report Written by: ESMAEL ARAGAW 2013/14 Page iv Hosting company: K2N ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY PLC. List of table Table 2.1 format of take off sheet we have been used in the site……………………………………..15 Table 2.2 shows the format of bar schedule working paper we have been use at the site………….…16 Table 2. 3 shows the format of bill of quantity we have been used at the site………………………...17 Table 2. 4 relative compaction lab results……………………………………………………….……22 Table 2.5 form work removal period in our site…………………………………………………..…..25 Table 2.6 silt content and specific gravity lab test result…………………………………………..…29 Table 2.7 admixture used in the site………………………………………………………………….30 List of figures Figure 1.1 company organization flow chart…………………………………………………………3 Figure 1.2 akaki Addis textile factory project ……………………………………………………….7 Figure 1.3 Hawassa university project, library and laboratories picture……………………………..8 Figure 2.1 flow in the section………………………………………………………………………..11 Figure 2.2 pit excavation and trench excavation and masonry work……………………………….. 21 Figure 2.3 form work and false work………………………………………………………………..24 Figure 2.4 formwork to footing pad…………………………………………………………………25 Figure 2.5 form work for foundation column ……………………………………………………….25 Figure 2.6 form work to elevation column…………………………………………………………..26 Figure 2.7 shear wall, footing and slab rebar and its appearance at site…………………………….27 Figure 2.8 bar over lapping………………………………………………………………………….27 Figure 2.9 slump cone and concrete illustration…………………………………………………….32 Figure 2.10 expansion joint in footing and grade beam…………………………………………….33 Figure 2.11 concrete work………………………………………………………………………….34
  • HU ioT school of CUENg. Final internship report Written by: ESMAEL ARAGAW 2013/14 Page v Hosting company: K2N ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY PLC. Contents Chapter one 1. Back ground of the hosting company…………………………………………………………1 1.1 Introduction……………………………………………………………………………1 1.2 Vision……………………………………………………….…………………………1 1.3 Mission………………………………………………………..……………………….1 1.4 Core values…………………………………………………….………………………1 1.5 Quality assurance……………………………………………….……………………..2 1.6 Company structure……………………………………………….……………………3 1.7 Organization and management……………………………………..………………….4 1.8 Field of specification……………………………………………….………………….5 1.9 International experience…………………………………………….…………………5 1.10 Reference projects and service furnished by the company…………...………………6 Chapter two 2. Overall internship experience………………………………………………….……………..10 2.1 Joining of the company………………………………………………….…………….10 2.2 Section of the company I have been work…………………………………………….10 2.2.1. Flow in that section………………………………………………..……………11 2.3 Work piece or task I have been executing………………………………….………… 13 2.3.1. Office work…………………………………………………………...…………14 2.3.2. Site work…………………………………………………………………………19 2.4 Procedure I have been used when I perform work tasks……………………………….19 2.4.1. Setting out…………………………………………………………………………. 20 2.4.2. Excavations……………………………………………………………………..…20 2.4.3. Fill…………………………………………………………………………..…….. 22 2.4.3.1. Test on fill material………………………………………………….……..…22 2.4.4. Masonry work…………………………………………………………………...…23 2.4.5. Concrete form work…………………………………………………………….......23 2.4.6. Reinforcement bar………………………………………….……………………….26 2.4.6.1. Methodology…………………………………………….…………………….26 2.4.6.2. Bar splicing………………………………………………….……………...…27 2.4.7. Concrete……………………………………………………………….……………28 2.4.7.1. Constituents of concrete…………………………………………….…………28 2.4.7.2. Methodology…………………………………………………………….……. 30 2.4.7.3. Test on concrete…………………………………………………………….… 32 2.4.7.4. Joint………………………………………………………………………........32 2.5 My performance during accomplishing work tasks………………………………….….35 2.6 Challenges I have faced…………………………………………………………………35 2.7 Measures I take for challenges………………………………………………………….36
  • HU ioT school of CUENg. Final internship report Written by: ESMAEL ARAGAW 2013/14 Page vi Hosting company: K2N ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY PLC. Chapter three 3. Overall benefits of the internship……………………………………………………………. 38 3.1 Improving practical skill………………………………………………………………38 3.2 Upgrading the theoretical knowledge……………………………………………….. .39 3.3 Upgrading interpersonal communication skill………………………………………...39 3.4 Improving team playing skill………………………………………………...………..40 3.5 Improving leadership skill…………………………………………………….……… 40 3.6 Work ethics and related issues…………………………………………………..…….41 3.7 Entrepreneurship skill……………………………………………………………..…..41 Chapter four 4. Conclusion and recommendation…………………………………………………………..…42 4.1 Conclusions…………………………………………………………………………... 42 4.2 Recommendation……………………………………………………………………....43 4.2.1 Recommendation to the company…………………………………………...…43 4.2.2 Recommendation to the school………………………………………………...45 5. Reference ………………………………………………………………………………….…..46 6. Appendix……………………………………………………………………………………….47
  • HU ioT school of CUENg. Final internship report Written by: ESMAEL ARAGAW 2013/14 Page 1 Hosting company: K2N ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY PLC. Chapter one 1. Background of the hosting company 1.1. INTRODUCTION K2N Architecture and Engineering Consultancy Plc. is a multi-disciplinary Consulting firm, a reputation for responsive, innovative yet practical design approaches to complex Architectural & Engineering problems. Through their experience and dedication to the construction industry K2N consulting firm is committed to provide with the most professional, efficient and cost effective consultancy services. The goal of the company is to satisfy the most demanding construction needs in Ethiopia or elsewhere in the world. Registered in2001 EC, K2N is an architectural & engineering partnership providing design, supervision, consultancy and project management services and engineering solution for various categories of projects. With core staff strength of all professionals in affiliated engineering firms, and the use of the most recent information technology in the production of contract information, the firm has over the years acquired a thorough capability to execute medium to large scale project from feasibility through design and contract administration to completion and project administration. K2N Architecture & Engineering Consultancy plc is a dynamic organization of innovative professionals who share a common goal to render the best and most effective services to the demanding construction industry, which is sensitive to both cost containment and service levels. 1.2. vision Their vision to the future is becoming one of the leading Architectural & Engineering consultants in Ethiopia. 1.3. MISSION: Guided by their vision, they shall provide quality services exceeding client‘s expectations while adhering to the highest standards of technical and individual excellence through continuous improvement training and innovation.  Adding value to clients.  Nurturing and promoting talents.  Respecting employees‘ intense efforts and contribution. 1.4. CORE VALUES Unparalleled customer satisfaction and a spirit of challenge as well as change are core components of the K2N Architecture & Engineering Consultancy Plc. K2N have four basic values:-
  • HU ioT school of CUENg. Final internship report Written by: ESMAEL ARAGAW 2013/14 Page 2 Hosting company: K2N ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY PLC. • Clients service They add value to client‘s project through innovative solutions. Consistency and knowledge in dealing with clients has contributed to fulfillment and corporate success. • Excellence They are resilient and persistent in talking on challenging goal and setting higher performance benchmarks that helps them to excel in every way that is meaningful to clients, employees and vendors. • Quality They are driven to attend to client‘s concern responsively towards delivering commitments. • Employees The company pursues business opportunities that will enable them to be competitive by empowering employees to take on initiative and at the same time promote ownership of responsibilities and accountabilities to results and performance. 1.5. QUALITY ASSURANCE • Quality Policy They are committed to become a leading Architectural and Engineering consultant in the country by providing value added services in a quality conscious environment that not only exceeds the expectation of customers, vendors‘ employees and shareholders, but also raises the standards of excellence in industry. We are committed to achieve our goal by continually improving people, processes and products. Quality Objectives • To win major projects and attain premier in the industry. • To successfully execute projects undertaken. • Continues development of competence & skill based on K2N human resources.
  • HU ioT school of CUENg. Final internship report Written by: ESMAEL ARAGAW 2013/14 Page 3 Hosting company: K2N ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY PLC. 1.6. COMPANY STRUCTURE Figure 1.1 company organization flow chart COMPANY ADDRESS The company currently maintains its office in Addis Ababa on MikeLilandstreet, NB business center 3 rd floor office No. 303. The complete profile as follows: Ethiopia, Addis Ababa Sub city - Bole, Woreda - 04, House No. 327/1 TIN: 0005244692, VAT: 1058060010 ARCHITECTURE BUILDINGS ENGINEERING STRUCTURAL ELECTRICAL CONTRACT ADMIN.& SUPERVISION FINANCE &ADMIN. SITE COORD. QUAN. SERV. FINANCE LIASON OFFICER GENERAL MANAGER SITE SUPERVISION SANITARY MECHANICAL OFF.ASSISTANCE LANDSCAPE INTERIOR URBAN PLANNING ADMININSTRATION AUDIT LEGAL SERVICE
  • HU ioT school of CUENg. Final internship report Written by: ESMAEL ARAGAW 2013/14 Page 4 Hosting company: K2N ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY PLC. Ministry of works registration: BO/CAE/236 Mike Leland Street, NB business center Third floor, office No. 303 Tel /line/: +251-118-965804 Mobile: +251-930-077603 Fax: +251-116-620364 P. O. Box: 33667 Web site - www.K2Nconsultants.com, E-mail - info@k2nconsultants.com 1.7. ORGANIZATION AND MANAGMENT In every organization, the most important asset is the people that play essential role in the performance of the company‘s functions and responsibilities. Thus, K2N architecture & engineering consultancy plc is fortunate to have highly qualified and experienced personnel. Reciprocally, K2N Architecture &Engineering Consultancy plc has aimed to provide its employees all the basic necessities while performing their assigned tasks and at the same time equip them through training and seminars to enhance their capabilities. The company as organization and the employees, because of the mutual benefits that simultaneously being enjoyed by, has grown tremendously and has blazed a track record of fulfilling its obligation and commitment both the customers and the community. They would like to be on the level where they should be .Having confidence in the organization, they aim high. The teamwork that has been developed through the years of hard work has reaped a harvest of opportunities and wealth. They will continue to improve and develop new concepts both in management and technology. The firm is capable of furnishing well coordinating Architectural and civil engineering design services by utilizing its in-house staff as well as its professional associates. All engineering services carry the quality control assurance and guaranty of the company firm. K2N Architecture &Engineering Consultancy Plc. carried out any project by forming a dedicated project team. Each team is headed by a senior design engineer and draftsmen enough to complete the project in schedule. Design teams are dynamically managed to accommodate necessary and fluctuating workload and tights schedules. Flexible teaming capability enables K2N to undertake large and small project with the lowest overhead coasts thus providing the best value to the client. mailto:info@k2nconsultants.com
  • HU ioT school of CUENg. Final internship report Written by: ESMAEL ARAGAW 2013/14 Page 5 Hosting company: K2N ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY PLC. 1.8. FIELDS OF SPECIALIZATION K2N Architecture &Engineering Consultancy plc is specialized in Architectural, Structural, Electrical, Sanitary and Mechanical design and construction management of commercial, residential, industrial, educational, military, sport facilities, hotel and office buildings as well as earth and rock fill dam, concrete dams, tunnels, water and distribution, drainage, waste water solid waste disposal, motor ways, and high ways, air field, terminals etc... SERVICES:  Engineering and Architectural design;  civil / structural design, Maintenance Management;  Cost Estimating, Contract Administration ;  Tender Documents preparation;  Bid evaluation;  Pre investment studies;  Regional development planning;  Resources surveys,  Technical feasibility;  urban planning;  Construction Management and supervision ,  project management ,  soil investigations,  Topographic Surveys  Construction supervision 1.9. INTERNATIOMAL EXPERIANCE K2N architecture & engineering consultancy plc is in close contact with American, German and Turkish based consulting engineering and Architecture firms and worked with them in varies forms.
  • HU ioT school of CUENg. Final internship report Written by: ESMAEL ARAGAW 2013/14 Page 6 Hosting company: K2N ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY PLC. FINANCIAL STANDING The office has been established with a capital of over two hundred thousand birr. It has its own vehicle, office equipments and all accessories which are relevant in the field of specialization. The organization is free from bank loans and other debits. The office maintains sound income and financial stability. REGISTRATION THE OFFICE HOLDS THE FOLLOWING LEGAL REGISTRATION AND LICENSES 1. Addis Ababa city administration urban development and work Bureau 2. Ministry of trade, Industry and tourism principal registration certificate 3. Addis Ababa administration trade, industry & tourism bureau. 4. Value added tax registration. ASSOCIATION AND PROFESSIONAL ORGANIZATION 1. Ethiopian Architects & Engineers Associations 2. Addis Ababa chamber of Commerce Sectoral Associations COMPLIANCE WITH APPLICABLE CODES, K2N uses Ethiopian building code of standard (EBCS), Ethiopian standard code of practice (ESCP), Euro code 2-1992 (used by the software), regional and national standard according to the requirement of the civil structures and Architectural design principles. ENGINEERING & SUPPORTING SOFTWARES K2N uses engineering & supportive software‘s that are used by all professionals which are the most updated. 1.10. REFERENCE PROJETS AND SERVICES FURNISHED BY K2N Following is descriptions of some of the major projects handled by the company in Architectural, structural design or other engineering schemes. 1. AYKA ADDIS TEXTILE FACTORY AYKA Addis is one of the biggest textile factories in Ethiopia. It lies on 20 Hectare plot of Land. It has five buildings Spinning 1(14,000 m 2 , Spinning 2 (22,500 m 2 ), Knitting Plant (8000 m 2 ), Dyeing Plant (18,000 m 2 ), Garment (G+4 + Basement, 26,000 m 2 ) and Store -1 (6000 m 2 ) and Store 2 (2500 m 2 ).
  • HU ioT school of CUENg. Final internship report Written by: ESMAEL ARAGAW 2013/14 Page 7 Hosting company: K2N ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY PLC. Project: Cable Factory Value: 33 Mill USD. Client: AYKA Addis Consultant: K2N architecture &Engineering Consultancy Plc. Service rendered: Structural design, detailing and supervision Figure 1.2 akaki Addis textile factory project 2. HAWASSA UNIVERSITY PROJECT A groundbreaking project in which the company awarded a national Architectural competition in 2012, while the university floated a competition for three packages. The project consists of a mega civil engineering laboratory, Mechanical engineering laboratory, Electrical engineering laboratory, chemical engineering laboratory, Biosystems laboratory, Technology library, Three dining halls, ICT center, main store and kitchen store. The design work for all is completed and now it is in tender process for the selection of contractors.
  • HU ioT school of CUENg. Final internship report Written by: ESMAEL ARAGAW 2013/14 Page 8 Hosting company: K2N ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY PLC. Figure 1.3 Hawassa university project library and laboratories picture Project: Hawassa university package I Value: 600 Mill ETB. Client: Hawassa University Consultant: K2N architecture & Engineering Consultancy Plc. Service rendered: All schemes of design, Contract administration and supervision
  • HU ioT school of CUENg. Final internship report Written by: ESMAEL ARAGAW 2013/14 Page 9 Hosting company: K2N ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY PLC. 3. WOLAYTA ZONE POLICE DEPARTEMENT HEAD OFFICE This is also an award winning project in an Architectural competition held in 2012 by SNNPR state design and construction supervision authority. Project: Wolayta zone police department head office Value: 30 Mill ETB. Client: Wolayta zone police department Consultant: K2N architecture & Engineering Consultancy Plc. Service rendered: All schemes of design and specifications AWARDS K2N has the following awards  First prize winner Hawassa University Engineering laboratories /package I/  First prize Winner Wolayta Zone Police department head office  Second prize winner United Bank head quarters  Third prize winner Ethiopian parliament competition COMPETITION ENTRIES  Oromia International Bank headquarters competition CLIENTS The following are K2N‘s esteemed clients  Hawassa University  Wolayta zone police department  Addis Ababa city administration  Ayka Addis textile factory  Aturplc  SygenDimma textile factory  Sygen BM  SVP textile  Embassy of Gambia  Oromya regional state health office and Flintstone engineering
  • HU ioT school of CUENg. Final internship report Written by: ESMAEL ARAGAW 2013/14 Page 10 Hosting company: K2N ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY PLC. Chapter two 2. OVER ALL INTERNSHIP EXPERIENCE 2.1. Joining of the company Since we finish 3 rd year class we got the application letter for internship from the school of civil and urban engineering. So, I have been searching a hosting company in the summer but I don‘t get any company that satisfy my own interest because they don‘t have the ability and the capacity to teach intern student and also some company reject student because student from other universities apply first. Due to those reason and other disabilities I did not find any company in the summer. After I come back to campus from the summer break I was preparing for the holistic examination like other students do. At last we take the examination and waiting for the result till announced cause if we did not pass it, there is no possibilities to take the internship program. Before we take the holistic exam I try to search any other company in the vicinity of our campus and my home town by calling and emailing but I did not have any. So, I come back to campus without getting any hosting company. After the result of our holistic exam is announced I applied a letter to the school to find me any hosting company. The university linkage search a company for around two weeks after the holistic result is posted. So, they send me with another student to the company called K2N ARCTHICTURE AND ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY PLC. Then we went there to begin the work and we ask the worker around there that were was there office. They shown as and we ask the resident engineer ANTENH and he gives us an orientation about the overall work we perform throughout the whole internship months and tell as we can begin our work tomorrow. As he told us we begin work and join the company. 2.2. Section of the Company I have been work My hosting company has many projects in our country as I mentioned in the company profile. Thus from those listed I have been working in the Hawassa university expansion of iot project. The project consists of a mega G+1 civil engineering laboratory, G+1 Mechanical engineering laboratory, G+1 Electrical engineering laboratory, G+1 chemical engineering laboratory, G+1 Biosystems laboratory, G+4 Technology library, threeG+1 dining halls, G+0 ICT center, G+ 0 main store and G+0 kitchen store. But when I was arrived at the site Civil engineering laboratory, Technology library, three dining halls, main store and kitchen store were the only ongoing project. The library building covers more than 12,000 square meters floor area. The two storey dining halls being identical and separate three blocks individually cover more than 3,300 square meters. In addition to these there are two more buildings which are under the same package. These are Main Store and Kitchen Store. They respectively cover 2,500 and 1,500 square meters. Because of my company was consultant for the building that the new HUiOT campus building I have the opportunity to work in two different department. This are; 1. Engineering consultancy from consultant side. 2. Building works from the contractor side.
  • HU ioT school of CUENg. Final internship report Written by: ESMAEL ARAGAW 2013/14 Page 11 Hosting company: K2N ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY PLC. Our hosting company was a consultant it has so many responsibilities. First the client compute bid for their drawing(architectural drawing) after they selected by the client they supply a working drawing like structural drawing, sanitary drawing, electrical drawing in one copy based on the agreement and the total project cost(bill of quantity) for the contractor after the contractor officially announced by the client. Then construction begins starting from mobilization and office building. The consulting work includes so many tasks such as inspecting of the site, quality control and safety of workers. In the site works executed based on the agreement between the client and the contractor. This document is called contract document so the consultant checks every trade of work is executed based on the contract document and the working methodology. Drawings and design also from the consultant side. 2.2.1. Flow in the section The working flow of the consultant and the contractor has many advantages in order to work every task closely and to solve problems arise between them. In every work there is a work flow whatever small is the section, my working site at Hawassa university project the work flow was look like the chart below. As shown in the chart every work was executed based on this flow. Figure 2.1 flow in the section 1. Design and supervision team The team includes structural engineer, architectural engineers, sanitary engineers, electrical engineers and other experienced engineers in other professions. The design and supervision team is a team from the resident engineer progect manager office engineer forman skiled and non skiled workers surveyor Design and supervision team
  • HU ioT school of CUENg. Final internship report Written by: ESMAEL ARAGAW 2013/14 Page 12 Hosting company: K2N ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY PLC. consultant side which guide every work executed in that site and gives supervision for the contractor based on the drawing and the specification (bill of quantity). This team mostly comes to the site when there is amiss understanding on drawings, working techniques, drawing detailing error, and for meeting between the three parties. The team provides continuous service to the project from start to finish, establishing and maintaining the quality and integrity of each design. 2. Resident engineer Position is responsible for multiple construction projects or a single project of a large scale requiring multiple disciplines. This includes reviewing design; supervising construction progress and scheduling; starting up process systems/equipment or facilities for turning over to the owner's personnel. Supervise field staff and contractors on the site with responsibility for quality construction in accordance with plans and specifications. He/she also responsible for approval of change orders, invoices, and payment applications which may include final payment. So, the resident engineer mostly control every work as much as possible in terms of their quality, cost and time. Testing of materials delivered at site and safety of workers starting from managers to daily labors also the duty of the resident engineer. 3. Project manager The project manager has so many responsibilities at the site and in our site these positions is accountable for the contractor or the owner and are appointed by the owner of the construction company. The main duty of the manager is Manages the whole site work execution, Makes payment to sub contract workers, Approves material request, Analyses the work processes, Executes sub-contracting agreements, Reviews and checks the reports made by the office engineer. 4. Site engineer Site engineer shall be accountable for the following tasks and responsibilities:  Studying the work plan submitted by the contactor and suggests any modifications.  To watch and inspect the construction work and assure that it is done in full accordance with the drawings, technical specifications and bills of quantities.  Supervising the works on site in accordance with the contract documents and using the template and procedure established by the consultant.  Inspecting and testing materials prior to their use at site as per sample approved by the consultant and ensuring removal of rejected material out from site.  Ensuring the correct implementation of the works according to technical specifications, to designs and quality of materials  Checking of layout and setting out of buildings with respect to existing structures and site levels.  Checking and testing of completed works before they are covered by the contractor, taking photos on a regular basis and also on account of defective work.  Ensuring that health and safety measures are adopted and followed to the full extent.  prepare weekly report and suggest and instruct additional safety measures if needed
  • HU ioT school of CUENg. Final internship report Written by: ESMAEL ARAGAW 2013/14 Page 13 Hosting company: K2N ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY PLC.  Maintain a filing system for all site memos and instructions, measured quantities of work and materials on site, reports and other documents and correspondence pertaining to the construction activities and  Maintain a site order book to be made available for the consultants and senior officers to write comments or defects in construction noticed during site visits and carrying out compliance at site. 5. Forman A foreman is the worker or tradesman who is in charge of a construction crew and is a skilled supervisor who is responsible to work side by side with the project manager, property owner, and other construction design engineers in order to complete a project in a given time limit. His job is to employ the suitable workers on the various tasks to complete the job, and supervise all phases of the construction project from start to end or supervise only a portion of the building process Normally the foreman is a construction worker with many years of experience in a particular trade who is charged with organizing the overall construction of a particular project. Typically the foreman is a person with specialist knowledge of a given trade who has moved into the position and is now focused on an overall management of all trades rather than any particular specialized group. A good foreman is the keystone of their projects since they control every work more closely than the others like project manager, site engineer etc. the Forman also have a duty of motivating workers and choosing good workers for every aspects of work. 6. Surveyor In any construction a surveyor is mandatory so, in our site the surveyor works starting from setting out to checking verticality, keeping the natural level of the building, checking elevation of columns. 7. Skilled and non-skilled persons This group includes masons, carpenter, bar benders and the daily laborers. In our country workers of such group are appointed only by experience these have its own advantage on the constriction. They work everything as they ordered by withier the Forman or the site engineer. 2.3. Work piece or task I have been executing Actually I assigned from the university to work with consultants but consultation is not easy task to perform especially for students because it needs experienced and further specialized person in the field and most of the work is not parallel with civil engineering it has different field within it. So, to know every work what civil engineers do I try to work and share experience with contractor in addition to consultant. And also the consultant main work at the site is controlling time, cost, quality and safety of workers so those work needs inspection, test conducting and taking different measures when the contractor don‘t execute it properly. Their main work is to advice and provides abettor idea how the project will finish with a minimum cost, time and quality.
  • HU ioT school of CUENg. Final internship report Written by: ESMAEL ARAGAW 2013/14 Page 14 Hosting company: K2N ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY PLC. Generally I have been working in the two sections as mentioned above. I classify the work in to office work and site works, mostly the work I have been executing on the site is supervising, working as a site engineer, surveyor and Forman. 2.3.1. Office work In my four month internship period I experience Office works that are worked mostly at the site this includes some tasks performed by office engineer and quantity surveyor. Such as; I. Taking off II. Bill of quantity III. Report writing IV. Reading and interpreting drawings Taking off This is the process of preparing / defining a detailed list of all labor and materials necessary for the work and entering the items on properly dimensioned paper. The standard form used for entering the dimensions taken or scaled from drawings to determine the accurate quantity in each trade of work, except reinforcement steel, is called take off sheet or dimension paper. The main aim of this sheet is for payment and cost estimation for purchasing and preparing bill of quantity. The dimension paper used for taking off is double – ruledA4 size paper as shown below
  • HU ioT school of CUENg. Final internship report Written by: ESMAEL ARAGAW 2013/14 Page 15 Hosting company: K2N ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY PLC. Table 2.1 format of take off sheet we have been used in the site. Take off sheet Project; ________ block type; _______ Client; ________ location; _______ Consultant; ________ Contractor; ________ 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 Column 1 is used for stating the number of times an item occurs and is called the timesing column. Column 2 is called dimension column as it is used to enter the dimensions of the items of works. The dimensions are entered in the order indicated below: Length, Width, Height or thickness. Column 3 is called squaring column. The stated dimensions in column 2 are multiplied to determine the quantity of the work either in ml, m 2 , m 3 or in Pcs. or No. Whereas column 4 is called description column and description of the work item is briefly stated. Based on the above format I have been calculating the quantity of concrete in m 2 and in m 3 , formwork in m 2 and excavation in m 3 . We were use m 3 for depth greater than 30 cm and if it is less than we use m 2. A separate sheet (Bar Schedule) is used to prepare reinforcement quantities as shown below. Bar schedule is used to know the amount of rebar used on the site and to tell the bar bender that the amount of bar needed in some position of the building and its number. The following tasks are part of the taking off (used to facilitate defining the quantities): Describing the item, bracketing (relating the description to the quantity), timesing, dotting on (adding to the timesing factor), the ampersand (ditto), waste calculations, deduction of items, correction of dimensions (nullifying).
  • HU ioT school of CUENg. Final internship report Written by: ESMAEL ARAGAW 2013/14 Page 16 Hosting company: K2N ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY PLC. Table 2.2 the format of bar schedule working paper we have been use at the sit Sheet no. ___ Bar schedule sheet Project; _________ Block type; _______ Client; _________ Date; _______ Consultant ; _________ Location; _______ Contractor ; _________ Item location Dr.no. Shape diameter length No. of bars No.of floor No. of member length ∑ L for each diameter Ø8 Ø10 Ø12 Ø14 Total length Weight in kg/m 0.395 * 0.617 * 0.888 * 1.209 * Total weight in kg ___________ ______________ _____________ Contractor Site supervisor Consultant * This numbers is drive from the formula Weight per unit length for Ф6 is 0.222 kg/m; for any other diameter ―d‖, with weight per unit length ―W‖: W = (d 2 /6 2 ) x0.222 where ―d‖ is the diameter of the bar. Bill of quantity The traditional purpose of bills of quantities is to act as a uniform basis for inviting competitive tenders, and to assist in valuing completed work. Bills of quantity are first designed to meet the needs of estimators, although some estimators say the bill format has changed to assist the consultants, in cost planning exercises through the widespread use of elemental bills. A contractor can also make use of the bill of quantities in many ways, for example:
  • HU ioT school of CUENg. Final internship report Written by: ESMAEL ARAGAW 2013/14 Page 17 Hosting company: K2N ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY PLC. 1. To plan material purchasing (note the danger in ordering from a bill: the contractor should always order materials from drawn information and the specification, making the contract administrator aware of any differences) 2. Preparing resourced programmes. 3. Cost control during the contract to ensure work is within budget. 4. Data collection during construction for bonus systems and feedback information for estimators. It is the format which is used in a bill of quantity to list (include) a short description of the specification along with its measuring unit, quantity and unit prices to determine the total Cost for each trade of item. In the site the bill of quantity is done by consultant with the contract document but at site we work it again for payment. Table 2.3 the format of bill of quantity we have been used at the site Project x Item Description Unit Quantity Unit price (rate) Amount _______________ _______________ Client Contractor There are four clearly defined steps in preparation of Bill of Quantities:  Taking off  Squaring  Abstracting  Writing the bill off quantity Report writing Reporting is a controlling / informative mechanism which will help in evaluating the status of a project. It entails us how we are accomplishing our set targets at the onset of a project. It will also help decision
  • HU ioT school of CUENg. Final internship report Written by: ESMAEL ARAGAW 2013/14 Page 18 Hosting company: K2N ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY PLC. makers to follow the status of the project without being present physically on the site. The reports should explain the history of the project .It should be realistic and self-explanatory. Numbers in a report are far important than number crunching. Putting numbers for a report writer like 10 % or 90% may be simple but the meaning for the decision makers is very vital. Putting wrong figures knowingly or unknowingly are devastating. Report Types The types of reports to be submitted in a project depends on project type; complexity; working habit etc. In our project we work the following reports  Weekly report and  monthly report Weekly Progress Report: This is the lowest report form. ( lowest means the level of view of the project is high).In short - it evaluates the accomplishment of the weekly plan and puts the next week schedule .This report will show the achievement/ drawbacks of the project at the broadest level and help the project manager ( PM) or Resident Engineer (RE) to solve the shortcomings at the grass root level. Major Contents of a Weekly Report: Project data ,Accomplishment of weekly Plan, Weekly labor and Machinery Deployment, Material Delivered to the site, major Problems of the week , Solutions given to the major problems, Anticipated problems to be solved for the next week , next week plan,... Monthly Progress Report: This is a report with a view of many eyes. This will be thoroughly seen by second level observers. The contractor, the client and the Consultant‘s representative will make an in- depth view of the report to have full information about the project status. This is a report where major bottle necks of the project will be narrated and the performance of the parties will be vividly seen. Major Contents of a Monthly Report: Accomplishment of monthly Plan, Monthly labor and Machinery Deployment, Material Delivered to the site, major Problems of the month , Solutions given to the major problems, Anticipated problems to be solved for the next month , next month plan..., Contractual matters -Delay Notifications (if any) , variations ( if any) ... Reading and interpreting drawings Drawings are the means by which the designer conveys the physical, quantitative, and visual description of the project to the contractor. The drawings are a two-dimensional representation of the physical structure that meets the objectives of the owner. They are also known as plans or blueprints In our site there were 4 types of drawing; 1.Architectural drawing 2.Structural drawing
  • HU ioT school of CUENg. Final internship report Written by: ESMAEL ARAGAW 2013/14 Page 19 Hosting company: K2N ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY PLC. 3.Sanitary drawing 4.Electrical installation drawing This drawing is the main language between the architect, designer and any worker at the site or office to build the model in position as specified by the designer and the client, based on the agreement. Thus to work as an engineer in the construction site it is mandatory knowing drawings and any other specification. Drawings are the most common means of communication for all types and sizes of project. Thus I understand each drawing and knew every symbol abbreviation for every section and I able to communicate with different workers using it. 2.3.2. Site work The site work was the very important task for me because the internship main objective lies over her and I have gain many knowledge from the site like communication skill, handling workers, management skill etc. within four month I have the ability to see many works from the project. The work task I have been executing at site is: - Supervising of works - Inspecting the worked element and how they work - Checking the work based on the given check list - Testing materials The site work in general overlay over the supervision part so I have been working as supervisor based on the given check list that our company give to us. Every work must be checked wither it is executed based on the methodology that the contractor provides to the consultant or not. If not the contractor must report the case why they didn‘t execute upon it. 2.4. Procedure I have been used when I perform work tasks The site work I have been perform was controlling how the work is going on and supervising the work based on the given check list which was given to us from the office. The checklist for site supervisors is issued in order to ensure a uniform system of supervision of building construction projects and as a result ensure the quality of construction. In the checklist the responsibilities, liabilities and limitations of the supervisor are briefly mentioned in the steps to the general terms. Details of construction are specified in the drawings, technical specifications and in the general and special conditions of the contract. The duty of mine was to ensure that the construction works are executed in accordance with the contract requirement. In the application of the checklist the details specified in the contract document always precede before the application and use of it. There are also tables and forms in the checklist that help as records of the incidences affecting the work and as references. In addition the standard technical specification was used as reference on the preparation of the checklist and shall always have precedence over the checklist. Therefore, I have been work most of my time at site to become more familiar with site works and to get more practical knowledge. Site work in general includes every kind of work executed at the site starting from setting out till finishing works
  • HU ioT school of CUENg. Final internship report Written by: ESMAEL ARAGAW 2013/14 Page 20 Hosting company: K2N ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY PLC. based on the given specification and methodology. The site work that I have been trough in the fore month internship period was in the sub structure work and super structure work exclusively. A normal building consists of two parts in general this are the super structure and the sub structure. Any structure below the ground floor slab level including the basement, retaining walls, ground slab, grade beam, and foundation is called a substructure. In most of the cases, substructure work can be categorized as earthwork, concrete work and masonry work. I have seen that how the excavation was done, concrete pouring, masonry work and back filling. Super structure is the part of a building which extend above the grade beam or everything above the sub structure includes slab(1 st floor slab), column, walls, roof etc. the purpose of the super structure is to enclose and divide space as well as spread load safely in to the sub structure. 2.4.1. Setting out A building is set out in order to clearly define the outline of the excavation and the center line of the walls, so that construction can be carried out exactly according to the plan. The basic coordinates of each building will be set in position in accordance to the given bench mark. Surveying will be carried out by total station through skilled professional. Performing the job by the cited instrument will enable the respective professional to decide and limit the real topography of the site. I didn‘t see this work but I try to grasp some knowledge by asking the engineers how it was worked and its main procedures. 2.4.2. Excavations Excavation is the first step of construction. It refers to the process of removing soil or rock from its original location, typically in preparation for constructing foundations, basements, and underground utility lines and for grading of the ground surface. Excavated material required for backfill or grading fill is stockpiled on the site for subsequent use. Excavation work I have seen was including bulk excavation, pit excavation and trench excavation. The main aim of the excavation work is to remove organic soils or unwanted soil for the safety of the building from chemical attacking. Excavation shall be carried out to the lines, levels, width, depth and grades and shown on the drawings, directed by the Engineer or as appropriate to the works to be placed in the excavation. Site clearance After receiving the approval of the surveying data, using the intended machineries the top soil excavation will be started. The organic top soil found on the upper layer to an average thickness of 20cm will be removed separately from the bulk excavation work. Immediate cart away will be performed following its clearance. This job will be carried out by loader or motor grader as may be suitable to the work. The use of loader will give the advantage of forthwith cart away as dump trucks will be ready available on site, while performing the clearance work. Moreover the clearing of the top soil by loader will bring an increased output result than the motor grader. Bulk excavation Bulk excavation was carried out after the removal of the top soil is executed. 150cm off set from each side of the site will be extended to the outer side and the work is performed for the intended average depth
  • HU ioT school of CUENg. Final internship report Written by: ESMAEL ARAGAW 2013/14 Page 21 Hosting company: K2N ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY PLC. of excavation, which is 80cm from the reduced ground level. Since they have the real and direct experience of working on the excavation of the University Campus, it was easy for them to manage. The removal of the soil with the mentioned type machine has a positive effect over increasing of the out pit than an excavator. However as they have planned to stock pile partly the excavated soil in the nearby location, which is not more than 200 meters away from the specific block, they also use excavator as a combination. The surplus excavated soil immediately taken off from site. As to whether the excavation is executed to the required level will be ensured by taking the level reading in the appropriate manner. The data was organized and supplied to the respective Resident Engineer for which he/ she may give an approval. The Work was arranged in a way before the coming of the heavy rainy season. Pit and trench excavation Naturally this activity follows the bulk excavation. Accordingly, before going into the direct excavation work, the site was organized in a manner that necessary profiles are put in position. Appropriate site lay out was made and all the positions of the pit excavation in their exact and right place was located. The settings out of these essential structural bases seek the approval of the Resident Engineer. The pit excavation works was started from the center and proceed in either direction, along the length of the specific site. Excavating the pit from the middle to the edges has the advantage to give right off way for the dump trucks to haul the excavated soil to the designated place. It avoids the unnecessary obstacles which will prohibit access to the pit under excavation and give additional access by either of the sides. Excavation of pit and trench was carried out by an excavator and manpower respectively. Excavation shall be carried out to the lines, levels, width, depth and grades and shown on the drawings, directed by the Engineer or as appropriate to the works to be placed in the excavation. Excavation shall be suitably trimmed and leveled before subsequent work is placed. In the event of over excavation without the approval of the Engineer, such over excavated area was filled with selected excavated or borrowed fill material approved by the Engineer and finished compacted. Excess volume formed in excavation was filled with selected excavated or borrowed material approved by the Engineer and compacted to the compaction standard requirements in the Fill Section of the Specification. Figure 2.2 pit excavation and trench excavation and masonry work
  • HU ioT school of CUENg. Final internship report Written by: ESMAEL ARAGAW 2013/14 Page 22 Hosting company: K2N ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY PLC. 2.4.3. FILL Fill work will follow the erection of foundation column. Bulk, pit and trench excavations need to be back filled with a better soil type, which will have better compaction character and would bring the minimum required proctor density. In order to attain the minimum standard as mentioned on the Bill of Quantity, they deploy appropriate machineries. Hawassa area has shown that the natural excavated soil alone wouldn‘t attain the compaction density based on the tested value. The soil should have to be blended with a granular material like red ash. The excavated soil was deposited somewhere close to the project site and it was blended there with the red ash to be borrowed from outside. The blending process involves different machineries like loader, excavator, and dump trucks. After blending it was transported to the right place it has filled. The dump trucks dump it within the site laid out, and then the loader spread it to the required thickness, which is at every 20mm. Eight ton roller self equipped with water sprinkling device ram and vibrate it well. This was done to the bulk fill area. For the pit the same blended fill was utilized, but the machines that compact was different than the bulk fill area. Here the roller wouldn‘t apply rather it was performed by frog compactors. Water was sprinkled by hose (gerika) in order to increase the PI of the fill, so that it was compacted to the required stage. The final levels of fill was adjusted, graded and prepared to receive bedding to lay on fill. 2.4.3.1. Test on fill (compaction) An important part of the grading of the site often includes the compaction of fill. Compaction is defined as the densification of a fill by mechanical means. This physical process of getting the soil into a dense state can increase the shear strength, decrease the compressibility, and decrease the permeability of the soil. There are four basic factors that affect compaction: soil type, water content, material gradation and compaction energy. Therefore the main aim of this test on the back fill material is to improve this materials strength before it exposed to the floor slab load. In the site for backfill soil the contractors conduct relative compaction test at Hawassa University to fulfill the required fill category based on the specification. They take a test at the field (sand replacing or field density test) and at laboratory (proctor compaction test). Therefore they get the relative compaction using; Relative compaction = × 100 Based on this formula after compacting the field and the lab test the material was approved to use as a fill material for the footing, masonry retain wall and bulk excavations. The test result is approved if the relative compaction result shows 95% and above. Table 2.4 relative compaction lab result Material Field dry density(Fd ) kg/m 3 Laboratory dry density(Ld) kg/m 3 Relative compaction = (Fd/Ld)*100 (in %) Soil only 1146.64 1366.76 83.89% Soil and red ash 1348.04 1395.93 96.57%
  • HU ioT school of CUENg. Final internship report Written by: ESMAEL ARAGAW 2013/14 Page 23 Hosting company: K2N ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY PLC. So, based on the test result the soil and the red ash pass the requirement thus the fill used at site was the red ash and the soil together with the appropriate compaction rate. The ratio of blending is 1:1 ratio. 2.4.4. Masonry work masonry are works that are executed by laying building material units such as stone, brick and HCB of specified dimension by providing a binding material such as mortar. I got the opportunity to see masonry work under the grade beam on the periphery of the building. The masonry was built with roughly dressed stone wall of size not less than 300mm per course and 400mm wide. Stone used for masonry work shall be hard and sound, free from vents, cracks, fishers, discoloration or other defects that will adversely affect strength or appearance. After constructing masonry wall, the grade beam is constructed directly over it. It gives an appearance of additional stability to the building and also the clearance from the ground level. Note that stone wall is measured by volume and the masonry wall over lied in a c-5 lean concrete. 2.4.5. Concrete Form work As fresh concrete is in plastic state when it is placed for construction purpose so, it becomes necessary to provide some temporary structure to confine and support the concrete till it gains sufficient strength for self-supporting. This temporary structure is called form work. Concrete formwork serves as a mold to produce concrete elements having a desired size and configuration. It is usually erected for this purpose and then removed after the concrete has cured to a satisfactory strength. In some cases, concrete forms may be left in place to become part of the permanent structure. For satisfactory performance, formwork must be adequately strong and stiff to carry the loads produced by the concrete, the workers placing and finishing the concrete, and any equipment or materials supported by the forms. In the site the form work material we use was the plywood material which have a good surface finish. Plywood is used extensively for concrete forms and provides the following advantages:  It is economical in large panels.  It is available in various thicknesses.  It creates smooth, finished surfaces on concrete. Plywood is manufactured by peeling veneers (layer of wood) from a log in thin layers, then gluing these veneers together to form plywood panels. Depending on the panel thickness, different numbers of veneer layers are used. To produce a panel that has desirable properties in both directions, the grain direction in different layers of veneer is oriented perpendicular to adjacent layers. Laying panels with veneer grain in perpendicular directions in alternate layers is called cross-banding. Because of cross-banding, the mechanical properties of adjacent veneers are not the same. In our site the plywood used is 10 ply or veneer which is 5 veneers in one direction and 5 in the other direction. The general step used to construct a formwork in the site is:  Prepare the false works in the desired position and level.  Preparing the form work in a desired shape based on the drawing or the size of the structure that is going to be cast.
  • HU ioT school of CUENg. Final internship report Written by: ESMAEL ARAGAW 2013/14 Page 24 Hosting company: K2N ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY PLC.  Painting with a releasing agent if needed.  Nailing it with appropriate bracing element and false work. The type of formwork that would be utilized on our site was a combination of ply wood and timber (eucalyptus) where necessary. The purpose of employing ply wood and timber is to make sure that quality concrete with perfect alignment would result. For horizontal structures like reinforced concrete slab the ply wood without being cut was placed. At the same time for the beams they use plywood form work for the soffit and timber or plywood for the sides. For vertical reinforced concrete structures ply wood formwork with timber false work was used. As most of the elevation columns assume uniform size, the ply wood was cut in size and was produced in a manner it could be easily fixed and dismantled. The bracing was done from timber and nailed perfectly to confine the fresh concrete. Reinforced concrete slabs and beams formwork was supported and fixed on eucalyptus pops and props. Dismantling of the formwork commenced after the allowable dates have elapsed since the day of the concrete casting. Accordingly column and side formworks will be dismantled after 16 hours elapsed from the concrete casting and other soffit formworks should stay in position until the concrete gets cured. The dates of dismantling for the soffit formworks were shortened by the use of fast curing concrete admixtures. The use of these admixtures will allow them to move fast forward with the construction and immediate utilization of the formwork on other successive structures. Figure 2.1 form work and false work The formworks of any type and of any place will be required:  To be rigid enough to confine plastic concrete at the lines grades and dimensions indicated on the form plans without bulging or sagging under the load,  To be constructed as mortar tight as possible to prevent the loss of concrete ingredients throughout the joints between the sections, and  To be easy to remove with minimal damage to the concrete surface. In case of failure to attain the required strength the conventional date of dismantling the formwork will be respected.
  • HU ioT school of CUENg. Final internship report Written by: ESMAEL ARAGAW 2013/14 Page 25 Hosting company: K2N ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY PLC. Type of work Duration of Removal Table 2.5 form work removal period in our site Vertical column, walls and beams 16 hour Soffit work to slab and beam 21 days Props to slab and beam 14 days Formwork to Footing Pads: Most of the pads which have larger and similar size were made via plywood formworks. Those of pads with a smaller size were made via together fixed timbers of locally available type. Such formworks was dismantled and directly fitted to their similar type pads, successively Figure 2.4 form work to footing pads Formwork to Foundation Columns: A Foundation column with similar cross-section and height was identified and their respective formworks were made ready, in a manner that they could be able to use them in rotation. Figure 2.5 form work to foundation column Formwork to Grade Beams: together sawn timbers of locally available type were made ready for all internal and external surfaces of the Grade Beams. Formwork to Elevation Columns: same as explained in Foundation Columns. The only exception here was the height of the columns. Since the height of the columns in some of the blocks is different than the others, the formwork preparations were consider this fact.
  • HU ioT school of CUENg. Final internship report Written by: ESMAEL ARAGAW 2013/14 Page 26 Hosting company: K2N ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY PLC. Figure 2.6 form work to elevation column Formwork to Suspended slabs and beams: Plywood formwork was made available to all these parts of the structure. 2.4.6. REINFORCEMENT BAR Concrete is much weaker in tension than in compression. Its tensile strength is approximately 10% of its compressive strength. Therefore, concrete is generally used in conjunction with steel reinforcement, which provides the tensile strength in a concrete member. The use of plain concrete without steel reinforcement is limited to pavements and some slabs-on-ground. Steel is the ideal material to complement concrete because the thermal expansion of both materials is the same. In other words, when heated or cooled, both steel and concrete expand or contract equally. Consequently, no stress is caused by differential expansion or contraction. Composite materials that expand differentially are subjected to such stresses. Steel also bonds well with concrete. In a composite material, the bond between two materials is necessary for it to function as a single material. The bond between steel and concrete is due to the chemistry of the two materials, which produces a chemical bond between them. Additionally, as water from concrete evaporates, it shrinks and grips the steel bars, making a mechanical bond. The mechanical bond is enhanced by using reinforcing bars, or rebar, that have surface deformations. Because a mechanical bond is a function of the area of contact between the two materials, surface deformations increase that area, thereby increasing the bond. For the same reason, rebar that have a light, firm layer of rust bonds better with concrete. Rust that is produced by leaving rebar outdoors on a construction site for a few days or weeks is not objectionable as long as the rust is not loose or flaky. Loose and flaky rust should be scraped using burlap or a piece of cloth. Excessively rusted rebar should not be used. 2.4.6.1. Methodology Before bulk purchase and transporting to the site they was conduct tensile strength test from the store, by taking sample from a place where they are intending to supply the material. Such sampling will involve the Consulting Office and the result will be communicated. When they receive approval, as it fulfills the expected minimum tensile strength, they proceed to the purchase of the same. Place of deposit was made ready before its arrival on site where it should be damped. A platform elevated from the top surface of the soil, that would ensure the avoidance of minimum contact were prepared. Then placed there, and was protected from any detrimental moisture, grease or oil or other substances that may affect its quality. Shop drawing or bar schedule was produced by the Office Engineer, in accordance to the structural design. This shop drawing or bar schedule was submitted to the Resident Engineer and upon his approval mass production will be induced.
  • HU ioT school of CUENg. Final internship report Written by: ESMAEL ARAGAW 2013/14 Page 27 Hosting company: K2N ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY PLC. Bar bending workshop were situated in a place where it could be close to the site where the bar is going to be placed in position. The bending of all types of reinforcement bars was take place within the workshop. Except the column reinforcement bars all was tied and placed in position exactly in a position where they are intended to be situated. On the sub-structure work hauling was performed by labor. But on the super structure it is through the help of the mobile crane, that the required amount and type of reinforcement bar will be conveyed. After placing in position of the reinforcement bar and before the concrete pouring any dust particle was removed or cleaned. On horizontal structures like the reinforced concrete in order to maintain the allowable concrete cover depth or thickness concrete spacers was produced and cured and placed in position. Fig 2.7 shear wall, footing and slab rebar and it‘s appearance at site 2.4.6.2. Splicing of bar Reinforced concrete can function as a structural material only if there is a perfect bond (adhesion) between the concrete and the reinforcing bars. This bond allows two lengths of reinforcing bars to function as one continuous bar through lap splices. Sometimes it becomes impossible to get required length of bar or it is required to make use surplus small length of bar and may be the drawing recommend to splice bar at that position. Then it is necessary to give a suitable lap of bar as shown in the figure over each other to develop full strength. Figure 2.8 bar over lapping (splicing) When splicing or overlapping was provided in reinforcing steel they must be away from the section which have maximum stress. I.e. bar was spliced in the site for bottom reinforcement at the support and for top reinforcement at the center in a length of four times the larger diameter of bar for every structure. Splicing length=4×Ø Where Ø is the diameter of the larger bar.
  • HU ioT school of CUENg. Final internship report Written by: ESMAEL ARAGAW 2013/14 Page 28 Hosting company: K2N ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY PLC. 2.4.7. Concrete Concrete is a composite consisting of the dispersed phase of aggregates (ranging from its maximum size coarse aggregates down to the fine sand particles) embedded in the matrix of cement paste. This is a Portland cement concrete with the four constituents of Portland cement, water, stone and sand. These basic components remain in current concrete but other constituents are now often added to modify its fresh and hardened properties. This has broadened the scope in the design and construction of concrete structures. It has also introduced factors that designers should recognize in order to realize the desired performance in terms of structural adequacy, constructability, and required service life. These are translated into strength, workability and durability in relation to properties of concrete. In addition, there is the need to satisfy these provisions at the most cost effective price in practice. Since our building is a reinforced concrete structure the concrete work was commenced every day for constructing/development of every part of the building. 2.4.7.1. Constituents of concrete The constituents of modern concrete have increased from the basic four (cement, water, stone, and sand) to include both chemical and mineral admixtures. These admixtures have been in use for decades, first in special circumstances, but have now been incorporated in more and more general applications for their technical and at times economic benefits in either or both fresh and hardened properties of concrete. Cement Cement may be described as a material with adhesive and cohesive properties that make it capable of bonding mineral fragments (‗aggregates‘) into a compact whole. In this process, it imparts strength and durability to the hardened mass called concrete. The cements used in the making of concrete are called hydraulic cements so named, because they have the property of reacting chemically with water in an exothermic (heat generating) process called hydration that results in water resistant products. The products of hydration form a viscous cement paste, which coats the aggregate surfaces and fills some of the void spaces between the aggregate pieces. The cement paste loses consistency (‗stiffens‘) on account of gradual loss of ‗free water‘, adsorption and evaporation, and subsequently ‗sets‘, transforming the mixture into a solid mass. If the consistency of the cement paste is either excessively ‗harsh‘ or excessively ‗wet‘, there is a danger of segregation, i.e., the aggregate tends to separate out of the mix; this will adversely affect the quality of the hardened concrete and result in a ‗honeycomb‘ appearance. The freshly set cement paste gains strength with time (‗hardens‘), on account of progressive filling of the void spaces in the paste with the reaction products, also resulting in a decrease in porosity and permeability. Aggregate Since aggregate occupies about three-quarters of the volume of concrete, it contributes significantly to the structural performance of concrete, especially strength, durability and volume stability. In general, aggregates in concrete have been grouped according to their sizes into fine and coarse aggregates. The separation is based on materials passing or retained on the nominally 5 mm (ASTMNo. 4) sieve. It is common to refer to fine aggregate as sand and coarse aggregate as stone. Traditionally, aggregates are
  • HU ioT school of CUENg. Final internship report Written by: ESMAEL ARAGAW 2013/14 Page 29 Hosting company: K2N ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY PLC. derived from natural sources in the form of river gravel or crushed rocks and river sand. Fine aggregate produced by crushing rocks to sand sizes is referred as manufactured sand. Aggregate property and tests A number of tests have been described to assess the quality of the aggregate, in terms of the following physical and mechanical properties: • particle size, shape and surface texture: ‗size‘ and ‗shape‘ influence strength; ‗shape‘ and ‗texture‘ influence bond (between the aggregate and the cement paste) • Specific gravity and bulk density: of aggregate particle and aggregate whole respectively; • moisture content, water absorption and bulking of sand: the moisture present in aggregate or the moisture that may be absorbed by the aggregate, as the case may be, must be accounted for in the water content of the concrete mix; moreover, the presence of water films in between sand particles results in an increase in volume (bulking of sand) that must be accounted for in case volume batching is employed in mix preparation; • Strength: resistance to compression, measured in terms of the aggregate crushing value; • Toughness: resistance to impact, measured in terms of the aggregate impact value; • Hardness: resistance to wear measured in terms of the aggregate abrasion value; • soundness: which indicates whether or not the aggregate undergoes appreciable volume changes due to alternate thermal changes, wetting and drying, freezing and thawing; and • deleterious constituents: such as iron pyrites, coal, mica, clay, silt, salt and organic impurities, which can adversely affect the hydration of cement, the bond with cement paste, the strength and the durability of hardened concrete. From those listed taste the two tests (specific gravity and silt content) was conducted but I didn‘t have the opportunity to see those tests because our university send as a little bit slow from the anticipated time of intern ship due to different reason. The result was: Table 2.6 silt content and specific gravity lab test result Material type Specific gravity Silt content River sand 2.23 4.68 Coarse aggregate 2.446 Not conducted Water Water has a significant role to play in the making of concrete — in mixing of fresh concrete and in curing of hardened concrete. In order to ensure proper strength development and durability of concrete, it is
  • HU ioT school of CUENg. Final internship report Written by: ESMAEL ARAGAW 2013/14 Page 30 Hosting company: K2N ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY PLC. necessary that the water used for mixing and curing is free from impurities such as oils, acids, alkalis, salts, sugar and organic materials. Water that is fit for human consumption (i.e., potable water) is generally considered to be suitable for concreting. However, when the portability of the water is suspect, it is advisable to perform a chemical analysis of the water. Admixtures Admixtures are additives that are introduced in a concrete mix to modify the properties of concrete in its fresh and hardened states. Fast curing admixtures allow curing the concrete within 3 to 5 days after the date of pouring the concrete. Such application will only be made after the conduct of the test and the satisfaction of the Resident Engineer. The amount of the admixture to be added varies in accordance to the manufacturer‘s specification. All relevant documents and specifications will be available before conducting the mix design and test for approval. After the satisfaction of the Supervisor the Contractor will execute the successive duties. If the use of admixtures ensures the early curing of the concrete structure, the date of removal of the formwork will be dictated accordingly. In our site two type of admixture has been used. This are: Table 2.7 admixture used in the site Admixture name Use Dosage Epoxy resin concrete bonding agent (NITOBOND EP) For bonding of fresh wet concrete to existing cement surface. By spraying over the joint (not specified). High performance super plasticizing admixture, accelerator (CONPLAST SP 430) To provide excellent acceleration of strength gain at early stage and major increase in strength at all age by significantly reducing water demand in a concrete mix. Ranges from 1litter per 100 kg cement material. 2.4.7.2. Methodology The concrete work involves three types of concrete grades; C-5, C-20, C-25. Except for the lean concrete to the rest of the concrete types we are going to employ ordinary Portland cement of Derban Cement Factory. For the later prepare test cubes and sample was taken for different curing schedules. Fast curing concrete admixture for all horizontal but suspended reinforced concrete structures was introduced. The use of this admixture will bring down the date of cure to a considerable standard. Taking the advantage of this shortened date of curing, the formworks can be relocated in a speedy manner to the next successive job. The required grade cement was purchased and stored in advance. The secure of such important materials at the earliest possible time would have an enormous advantage. A store was constructed out of Corrugated iron sheet (both the wall and the roofing). A platform elevated from the natural ground level was made from dry eucalyptus in a very close spacing in one direction. A thick polyethylene sheet was placed on top of the wood and then the cement is stored. Gravel is in scarce around Hawassa town. In order to alleviate this scarcity they try to use different sources. One possible source is own crushing plant.
  • HU ioT school of CUENg. Final internship report Written by: ESMAEL ARAGAW 2013/14 Page 31 Hosting company: K2N ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY PLC. For this option we need strict support both from the Consultant and the Client. We will locate appropriate quarry and to make use of that quarry the respective governmental office should act at the soonest possible. This would be possible if and only if the un-interrupted continuous support is maintained from the Client. The mix design will comprise of the employment of fine aggregate altogether with approved sand quality. The concrete work requires machine intensive approach, so that relevant output could be implied. A stationary mixer of 750lit capacity and mobile mixer of 2500lit capacity was deployed for the batching of the concrete. The mobile mixer was self loading, self watering and self shooting, with the help of extra shooter produced on site. The stationed mixers will be supplied with dumper and the output also will be conveyed by the same to the specific place. As they are going to use fast curing admixture, the workability of the concrete increases, before the setting time begins. As the curing date will be shortened the project will be advantaged from time. The uplifted structures was essentially were supported by the mobile crane. Such mechanized approach is essential to fulfill the interest of the project to complete the task within the specified period of time. The maximum concrete work capacity within a day was 165m3/day. The concrete casting was stopped where allowable distances are covered with respect to the structural elements. The continuation was performed by creating a strong bondage methodology. Such bondage points do not exceed more than 1/3 distance from the nearest beam. Joints were treated with special chemicals like epoxy, so that harmonized structural concrete was established. Lean concrete(c-5): it poured and placed in position on a surface which presupposes trimming. The mix was made by utilization of 150kg cement /m3 of concrete in minimum. The cement use for such work was PPC. Footing Pad(c-25): after the form work is done concrete was mixed using the ratio of 1:2:3 ratios. The capacity of the self-feeder mixer was satisfy alone this amount. Since the mixer is reaching close to the pads and equipped with own shooter the pouring was easy. Foundation Column(c-25): It basically follows the finish of the footing pads. Forthwith the casting of the footing pad concrete and the placement of rebar and fixing of formwork, the same number of footing columns as the footing pads was casted. Concrete was poured by labor receiving from the dumpers. Grade Beam(c-25): Following the finish of masonry wall lean concrete will be poured in order to maintain even and level surface. Forthwith the placing of reinforcement bar and the formwork the concrete were poured. Where the casting of the concrete could not be finalized within the day proper joining places will be maintained like keeping the distance, 1/3 of the grade beams length. Ground Slab(c-20): c-20 grade of concrete was applied on ground slabs. After the works underneath are finalized and the horizontal level is maintained, the placement of the reinforcement bar mesh was take place. The next thing that will come is casting of the concrete. As all ground slabs are surrounded with grids of the grade beams, it was simple to cast on each grid, following the guide of level given by the grade beam. Elevation column(c-25): The same procedure was followed as the foundation columns. Though the height in some of the blocks is different than the others, the casting was monolithic.
  • HU ioT school of CUENg. Final internship report Written by: ESMAEL ARAGAW 2013/14 Page 32 Hosting company: K2N ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY PLC. Suspended Slabs and Beams(c-25): The concrete casting of suspended slabs and the adjoining beams executed at the same time. Before the casting of the concrete the placement and tying of the concrete spacers were carefully done, in order to ensure the required concrete cover. Dusts and other detrimental dirt were getting removed. After making sure that all surfaces are clean and the temporary structures are stiff enough the casting was induced. The library and the dining block suspended slabs and adjoining beams are of huge volume. Therefore, highly mechanized casting was deployed to carry out the duty. For the sake of minimizing the joints, the output of the work there was escalated. Into this effect, mobile crane and the self-feeder mixer were used. Working of extended extra hour was also observed. 2.4.7.3. Teste on concrete Testes conducted at site for concrete work was the slump test and the cube test. Un fortunaitly the broking of the cube test is not in the vicinity of our site som I can‘t see this test ecactly except the know how about it is conducted. Slump test is the most widly used test in the field and laboratory which is used to check the consistancy of concrete used at a construction site. It provides usfull onformation on the uniformity in the day to day or even hour to hour production of concrete.the main apparatus used for this test was 30cm hight, 20cm bottom width and 10cm top width cylinderical cone, 60cm tamping road and iron plate. The workability dependes on the reversed gap btween the cone and the fresh concrete after tamping and removing of the cone. So, the workability is classified as:  Very law when the height is 0-25mm  Low when the hight is 25-50mm  Medium when 50-100mm  Highly workable when 100-175mm Figure 2.9 slump cone and concrete illustration Based on the above principle we conduct atest at the site and the result was medium so, we proceed the work. 2.4.7.4. Joints Any joint, as in a physical break or gap between members, in a concrete structure or building is a potential weak link which may lead to serviceability problems, lack of durability or structural failure. Yet seldom, if ever, is a building constructed without them. In many situations they are necessary requirement (e.g. to accommodate anticipated differential movement between members) and are sometimes regarded as a necessary evil. The word ‗joint‘ is used in building parlance to cover elements which have to perform quite different functions e.g. beam-column joints and isolation joints. In the former the joint has to provide continuity of Inverted slump cone Slum p Slumped concrete
  • HU ioT school of CUENg. Final internship report Written by: ESMAEL ARAGAW 2013/14 Page 33 Hosting company: K2N ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY PLC. structural action between the members meeting at the joint. In the latter the joint has to ensure separation between the adjacent members to allow one member to move independently of the other. Expansion joints were provided to maintain a minimum resistance at a joint. Reinforcements don‘t extend across expansion joints. The joint was filled by a material called Styrofoam. An expansion joint prevents the continuation of cracks formed due to differential settlement, variation in temperature and long span of the building from one structure to the other. expansion joint runs through the entire building from the ground floor (or the basement, if provided) up to the roof. Two columns are used at the expansion joint. However, a combined footing may be used for the two adjacent columns. Construction Joint A special type of static joint that is provided between two concrete placements is called a construction joint or cold joint. However, in our site expansion joint is provided by the designer in order to separate the building to protect from anticipated accident. Figure 2.10 expansion joint in footing and grade beam The four basic reasons for requiring joints are because  The member or structure cannot be constructed as a monolithic unit in one placement of concrete;  the structure or member on one side of the joint needs to be able to move relative to that on the other;  The design assumptions for the structure or building need the joint at that point so the analysis is simplified. Mixing of concrete As I explained in the methodology part the concrete was casted in two different ways in the site. This are: 1. Using movable mixer (self-loading): this mixer is a wheel mounted; the production capacity is 1.38 m 3 concrete per batch. The time required for one batch is 20 minutes. The usual one round batch mix of this equipment is sand 2 boxes (by its own box size), aggregate 2.5 boxes and cement 10pcs was use for c-25 concrete. Expansion joint on footing
  • HU ioT school of CUENg. Final internship report Written by: ESMAEL ARAGAW 2013/14 Page 34 Hosting company: K2N ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY PLC. 2. Stationery mixers: (feed by man power) those are mixers that use ―nominal mixing‖ or traditional mixing of concrete. Their productive capacity is 0.227 m 3 and the time required for one batch is 6 minutes. The general mixing of this type of equipment was first an 18×40×50 box is prepare for c-25 concrete so, the laborer feed it sand 4 boxes, aggregate 6 boxes and 2 pcs of cement for one round batch. Pouring of concrete After the concrete is casted the next step is casting or pouring the concrete in to the required place. Before commencing the casting process supervision is made for the bars, spacers, different installations and the formwork if it was in the expected quality for casting. The equipment used for pouring is bucket to carry the concrete, tower crane and vibrator for compaction of the fresh concrete. Figure 2.11 Concrete work Concrete consolidation Once the concrete has been placed in the form, it must be consolidated. Consolidation is the process of compacting concrete to ensure that it has no voids and air pockets. On a small job, consolidation can be done manually with the help of a steel rod, whereby the worker simply rods into the concrete up and down and with some sideways motion. It is, however, more common to employ a high-frequency power- driven vibrator. This is typically an internal (or immersion) vibrator inserted into the concrete. An external vibrator is one that vibrates the form and is more commonly used in precast concrete plants. An internal vibrator consists of a rod connected to a flexible shaft. The vibrator is inserted into freshly placed concrete. As the concrete in a particular location is compacted, the vibrator is moved to the next location. Because the vibrator has a finite area of influence, the new insertion point must be fairly close to the previous insertion point. Curing The hydration reaction begins as soon as water and cement come into contact, but the rate at which this reaction proceeds is extremely slow. It takes up to 6 months or longer for concrete to gain its full strength. However, approximately 80% of concrete strength develops in 28 days. Approximately two thirds of the 28-day strength is obtained in the first 7 days and approximately half in the first 3 days. This is true only if sufficient water and favorable temperature are available for the hydration reaction to continue. That is why concrete test cylinders are kept in a moist chamber until tested. Providing moisture to concrete
  • HU ioT school of CUENg. Final internship report Written by: ESMAEL ARAGAW 2013/14 Page 35 Hosting company: K2N ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY PLC. continuously for hydration is called curing of concrete. A well-cured concrete is denser and, hence, stronger and more durable. On construction sites, curing is begun as soon as the concrete has fully set (solidified), which is generally 12 to 24 h after placing the concrete. Curing in the initial stages of hardening is extremely important and should continue as long as possible, not less than 7 days. It is the process of preventing the loss of moisture from the concrete while maintaining a satisfactory temperature regime. Curing is essential for producing ‗good‘ concrete that has the desired strength, impermeability and durability, and is of particular importance in situations where the water-cement ratio is low, or the cement has a high rate of strength development. So, curing must be conducted using potable water and covering of the structural element using covering material for at least 7 successive days to retain the moisture lost. In our site curing of concrete starts from the finishing of the pouring and ends in a 7 days. Mostly they cure at morning and night time. 2.5. My performance during accomplishing work tasks Absolutely good the reason behind this performance was I integrate with all workers within a short time and get involved in different site works to gain more knowledge about the working environment in the site and improve myself with more site works and office work. Since the site work is very repetitive I have been working in different section to get involved and pass through different peace of works. Especially the work tasks I have been performing in the office work were very impressive because I didn‘t have any knowledge about the quantity works, cost and report writing etc. In general in the last four month I perform all my duties nicely and get knowledge of the practical world and relate it with the theory I have learnt in the class in the last three years. Also I transform myself to another level of skill, ethics, knowledge and leadership using this internship class and I perform it well. 2.6. Challenges I have faced Construction projects are complex and time-consuming undertakings that require the interaction and cooperation of many different persons to accomplish. The construction industry is typically divided into specialty areas, with each area requiring different skills, resources, and knowledge to participate effectively in it. In order to integrate and work closely in each section it is a challenging task to one person especially when he/she is fresh or beginner. In fact some challenges may be solved by me but some are above my limit and even the workers at the site also. In general I have faced the following challenges in the internship period.  Communication problem with workers in the office and at the site.  Shortage of working drawings like structural, architectural, sanitary, electrical and some other details.  Weather condition of the site.  Shortage of knowledge in some portion of the work at the site.  Underestimation by workers such as engineers, Forman.  Unsatisfactory answers for questions from engineers.  Safety facility.
  • HU ioT school of CUENg. Final internship report Written by: ESMAEL ARAGAW 2013/14 Page 36 Hosting company: K2N ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY PLC. 2.7. Measures I take for challenges Communication challenge was the most dangerous challenge from all challenges because of that it blocks me from finding more knowledge from skilled workers and other persons those are closed to the site work. Their language at the site was mostly an Italian word that makes me more confused and it was uneasy to know those words within a few days. At last I was able to understand those words through experience and by working with the employees. Those words are:  Stirrup ................ staffa...............Shear resistance members of columns, beams and shears walls.  Plumb bob ......... tumbi...............It used for checking verticality of structural members.  Footing pad bars... girila............. Reinforcement bar mesh under footing pad  Bottom soffit........ phondo.............. Used as a formwork for beams and slabs at the bottom.  Side board .......... sponda........... Used as a formwork for beams and slabs on vertical sides.  Brace ...................mekesecha............Support a vertical side formwork of a beam and column diagonally  Scaffolding ......... kebeleto............. Used as a support of formworks of a slab and beam at the bottom.  Tee .......................kristi............. Support a formwork of a beam.  Profile ..................modini..............Used for setting out works.  String ................... sibago...............Used to maintain alignment.  Yoke .....................kerebat............Used to fix the form works together in their position. Those are the main site language I able to understand but there are some others language they used to communicate that I didn‘t able understand it still. Drawing shortage: since I have been working in the consultant side we, asked together the resident engineer. And he gives as in soft copy and hard copy as we want within a week. Weather condition of the site: since I‘m fresh to such work I have been in a big nuisance particularly in the first month to adopt this kind of working environment. The main challenge was the sun light and dustiness of the site due to construction equipment. I bought a hate from the market that is suitable for sunlight and I wear a sun glass to combat this warm condition. Shortage of knowledge in some portion of works like quantity, bill of quantity, taking off, bar schedule and report writing was some challenges I have faced in the site. To solve these problems I try to ask workers at the site and read related literature to know more about this works. Lastly I knew how to work those things. The underestimation and the answer were not solved throughout the month with some workers but I try to communicate friendly with some workers to make myself clear and to know more knowledge from workers. And the answering problem was aroused due to that the contractors have no idea about how the building is designed and some shortage of knowledge about the design. We ask the design supervision team when they come for supervision and monthly meeting of the tree parties and know how the structural design was designed and some other misunderstanding.
  • HU ioT school of CUENg. Final internship report Written by: ESMAEL ARAGAW 2013/14 Page 37 Hosting company: K2N ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY PLC. Our safety including employees was in danger throughout the four months because of they didn‘t have any measure regarding safety. But In the last two month they try to fulfill some safety materials like safety shoes, gloves and hale mates and they use signals in the site as well.
  • HU ioT school of CUENg. Final internship report Written by: ESMAEL ARAGAW 2013/14 Page 38 Hosting company: K2N ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY PLC. Chapter tree 3. Overall Benefits of the internship Internship is a class healed at site to provide an enhanced understanding of the outside working environment before the student graduate. Student like civil and urban engineering and other fields also take this practice. The main aim of this practice (internship) is that to teach students communication with different workers or employees, to improve practical skill what they learned at class, up grading the theoretical knowledge in addition to the class, improve their leadership skill, team playing skill and etc. In my four month staying at the Hawassa University institute of technology expansion project with K2N consultant I have acquire much knowledge in different tasks as explained below in different section. Those different knowledge gets me a good performance in the internship period and I gain an experience that helps me after the graduation in the upcoming working era of mine. 3.1. Improving practical skill The aim of the internship is to address more practical knowledge for student. So, I found a practical knowledge at the site as much possible within the four month. The knowledge we have learn in the class is helpful to get those practical or real work in the site and totally different from the actual knowledge gained from the class. Thus I found some knowledge in the site which helps me to work with the site environment or site peoples. Some of the practical knowledge I gain from the internship class was:  Construction of formwork and false work for some reinforced concrete structure. In any construction work the first stage before casting of concrete is designing and constructing of form work. As I explained in the work procedure the formwork and false work must be stiff and must resist the fresh concrete till the concrete gain its strength. Thus the construction stage of form work was new to me since I‘m new for the practical world now I gain practical knowledge about how it is worked and erected.  Bar bending, positioning, splicing and tying, according the specified drawing. After the formwork and false work is ready the bar bending, positioning and tying work goes next. This work is done based on the working drawing provided in the working drawings (structural drawing) by the design team of that specified structure. In most case it was new for me to see such work since it is a practical work only performed at the site.  Surveying on building construction. We conduct the surveying class in the field for its lab session of the course in the normal class. But we don‘t know about how it is going to be in building construction in particular and in which particular stage of the construction work it used either the super structure or sub structure.  Casting and pouring of reinforced concrete structure and equipment used for casting.
  • HU ioT school of CUENg. Final internship report Written by: ESMAEL ARAGAW 2013/14 Page 39 Hosting company: K2N ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY PLC. Concrete is a vital material in any construction of reinforced concrete and is the main constituent or ingredient of any reinforced concrete structure. Thus it is mandatory to know this material in practice including how it is treated, placed (poured), mixed and the equipment used for those work. I got the practical knowledge in terms of those listed aspects of concrete.  Different construction equipment (machines) and their use in construction site. Many of great structures before are a product of numerous human power and countless days inspired by great powers. Machines are capable of handling tough work which may be beyond the scope of human labor to be performed. They can be expected to work with fair degree of effectiveness even under adverse weather, climate or topographical conditions. I generally know how equipment‘s are used in the site including their specific purpose. 3.2. Upgrading the theoretical knowledge The internship class is not only depending on the practical aspect but it also help students to upgrade or increase knowledge on already that they have. I try to integrate the practical knowledge with that of the theory learned in the class in different place in order to get more knowledge than the theory we learned on the class. I got the internship class very interesting in terms of upgrading a theoretical knowledge and I learned from the site some theories that we haven‘t learn in the class room by searching different related literature. Some of this is:  Quantity surveying  Structural design of shear wall and its advantage  Construction equipment  Report writing I learned those things in exclusive cause it is hard to read and understand everything from books and asking some peoples at site to those things ashamed me. Generally I change myself alit bit after the internship period in my knowledge than before I took it. 3.3. Upgrading interpersonal communication skill Communication is sharing or exchanging information or ideas with others in order to get some messages and knowledge. The communications systems within the building design and construction enterprise has taken on a large role in the achievement of profitability and efficiency. A basic understanding of communication systems is beneficial to all building professionals and trades, as they all play a part in the success of the construction. Construction is one of the places that ask a good communication skill either managing every trade of work or asking what is gowning on over there. So, communication is an important way of learning, which can be defined formally as the act, process, or experience of gaining knowledge or skills and sharing what we know. Cool communication is important in the real constructions world and it can appear in different forms as speaking, writing, and listening. In the site the most things I gain is due to communication with other workers like engineers, skilled and non-skilled workers, Forman etc. in some place/case it is very difficult to talk workers and ask them what we want because of that they underestimate us and sometimes they are not eager to tell. But I improve and know how to communicate with different classes of workers in the site.
  • HU ioT school of CUENg. Final internship report Written by: ESMAEL ARAGAW 2013/14 Page 40 Hosting company: K2N ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY PLC. 3.4. Improving team playing skill Team playing skill for construction work Team works, especially for engineers, involve in every piece of task and achieving good team playing skill is essential for Effective completion of tasks and Increasing productivity. This skill already exists in my personality in the campus due to different assignment and project works that I work together with student. But this skill is more than this in the construction site. In the construction site the work is already a team work and it needs more closeness of workers to solve problems arise in different aspects, misunderstanding in the drawing or working methodology and consult every work. We the student at the site also works together as a team to get more understanding and share ideas. More or less I improve my team work status by working together with different professionals, student and workers as a whole in the civil engineering works and consulting. 3.5. Improving leadership skill Leadership is the process of influencing individuals or groups to accomplish an organizational goal or mission. I have seen how each worker is controlled and organized to perform its day to day activities. Among all other managements i have seen that human resource management is the most important one. i have actually observed the method of controlling the working time and amount of work done by each worker so that the work proceeds according to the work plan (schedule).Leadership is a skill to guide, control and monitor peoples. For effective leadership i understood that personal values like confidence, effective communication and devotion are very important. In order to be good Leadership the following criteria should be fulfilled. Those are:-  Be technically proficient (skilled with different knowledge‘s).  Seek responsibility and take responsibility for your actions.  Make sound and timely decisions.  Know your people and look out for their well-being.  Keep your workers informed.  Develop a sense of responsibility in your workers.  Ensure that tasks are understood, supervised, and accomplished.  Use the full capabilities of your organization.  Listening to others.  Being organized.  Able to communicate clearly and efficiently. In the site it was impossible to us to lead anything because we go to the site to learn about the site work and we don‘t have enough ability to handle such works in such short time but we have learned how to become a good leader and the main signal of a good leader. Finally what I take hold of is Becoming a leader isn‘t easy because it takes a conscious commitment and consistent effort to develop one‘s leadership skills. But on the positive side, anyone who is willing to make the effort can become a good leader.
  • HU ioT school of CUENg. Final internship report Written by: ESMAEL ARAGAW 2013/14 Page 41 Hosting company: K2N ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY PLC. 3.6. Work ethics and related issues The concept of work ethics may be summarized as the overall quality in one‘s behavior towards appreciating the process of work flow and performing rather well on the job so that this work flow will not be jeopardized in the long run. During my internship program, I could say that I have managed to do my side of the job description with a high spirit and enthusiasm so that there was a smooth flow of activities both in the office and on construction site. Work ethics involve such characteristics as honesty, responsibility, reliability, accountability and etc. Punctuality is one of the major issues that could be raised when talking about work ethics and on my side I tried meet this criteria by attending to my working station in time so that there will not be any delay on the activities planned for that day. The behavior that one shows towards his peers and colleagues is also one manifestation of the concept of work ethics. Personally, I always respected and gave priority the employers of the company. Elements of work ethics that worth mentioning are:-punctuality, honesty, reliability, office discipline, corporation and responsibility. We us a student should follow the rules and regulations set by the company and avoid complaining any work load, activity or assignment that may arise on the site or office. It is a pleasure of supervisors if we have a good work ethics and we are responsible for any given tasks. Since the aim of internship is to let students know the outside environment pertinent to their field, which includes of such the above dealt qualities, I was with the great interest that I tried to meet my responsibilities and work ethics that I suppose to be fulfill by my side. Generally, I can say I have gained the potential benefits by taking the Engineering Internship Program. Entrepreneurship skill Entrepreneurship can be defined as the process of involving the creation of new enterprises and that the entrepreneur is the founder. He or she is the person who perceives the market opportunity and then has the motivation, drive and ability to mobilize resources to meet it. A construction project mainly requires large human, financial, physical (material and equipment) institutional (management) resources. Entrepreneurship is special human talent that helps manage those factors of production such as labor machinery and capital and takes risks of making loses. An entrepreneur is required to establish meaningful relationship between activity and authority which is intimately related to planning function. This type of skill is a capacity to create your own share company with other. In our site the contractors or the consultant are a good example or a role model for me to become an entrepreneur and work my own bossiness rather working in organization as employed. But to become an entrepreneur especially in our country takes a time to know the business well and a capacity to work such work need more money that we already have before. Meanwhile I got some advantages regarding the entrepreneurship skill and I have a dream and motivation to become one of the greatest entrepreneur in our country in the upcoming years in the construction industry or any other working areas as a whole.
  • HU ioT school of CUENg. Final internship report Written by: ESMAEL ARAGAW 2013/14 Page 42 Hosting company: K2N ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY PLC. Chapter four 4. Conclusion and recommendation to the company 4.1. Conclusions The internship is a bridge between the theoretical knowledge and the practical or the reality work at the field of construction or civil engineering work. We all who take the internship class go to companies that already working either as a consultant or a contractor. The responsibilities of the hosting company are to teach student and shape them in the four month as a real site workers. My hosting company is a consultant team and they help me and my friends who took the internship session in this company in acquiring different knowledge in different positions. They collaborate with the contractors to teach us in that section and they believe that the civil engineering work is more important for us than the consulting office. This program played an important role to break the conventional thought that field works can be only implemented by students who hold a degree or people who have an experience in building construction. We were able to acquire a high level of confidence to deal with problems that arise in a building construction. Since I took my internship session in the consulting side K2N ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING COLSULTANCY of the Hawassa university expansion of iot, I get an opportunity to work in the different party of the construction work which helps me to gain more knowledge by seeing what they work in their own office and what is their main responsibilities to the client and also each other. Working with a consultant team gets me more knowledge than that of the contractor in case that the consultation work includes the duty of the site engineers and in the consultant office there are different office that are more important for me to upgrade my knowledge in different aspects of work. The consultant team by its nature includes designer team including structural engineers, architects, sanitary, electrical and mechanical engineers, the contract administration and supervision team includes site coordinators, supervisors and quantity workers and the financial office. This helps me to get more knowledge than the contractors. From the design team especially from the structural designers I got some clues about how to design and the phases and different procedure in the designing of any structure starting from the roof to the footing. The architects also helps me to know every symbols used in any drawing and room orientations, how each room of the specified space can be together without being disturbed by one another. in the sanitary and electrical engineers also help us by teaching us about the riser diagram and installation of each junction in place for a building. They help me to understand what is going to be when I work in the consultant office. The contractors also avail practical knowledge for us to improve our practical knowledge status in the field. And also the contractors make us more familiar with site works starting from communication skill, handling of different site works equipment utilization manpower control to finishing of the work within the time scheduled by the client.
  • HU ioT school of CUENg. Final internship report Written by: ESMAEL ARAGAW 2013/14 Page 43 Hosting company: K2N ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY PLC. However, this internship program was not free from challenges. The most challenge was the amount of money allocated to the project was insufficient to handle all the expense of the students during the internship experience and shortage of resource for student like computer, class rooms for student only and any other problem exist. But they come up with the challenges and teach us how we must gown to be in the field after the graduation. Overall the internship program laid sound foundation for us to start our career. We are proud to be able to contribute towards nation building during the country's extremely critical period of the history. It will be definitely sensible to scale this practice up and to replicate in other disciplines as well. 4.2. Recommendations 4.2.1. Recommendation to the company Most works in the site needs careful attention and successive supervision of works but the in some case the site works goes improperly due to different causes. This kind of carelessness is not good for ether the consultant or the contractor. Therefore I suggest supervisors and site engineers to take a care full look after the work executed on the site and the work that will be executed. In the site there are works which is performed in the way that not to be performed. Such works lids to safety problem, loose of human power if its degree is high and economy if it is ordered to demolish it. Thus I recommend for the company the following:  Testing of material before it delivered to the site and after it delivered and also when it is in use for construction.  It is better to use steel form work than wood (plywood) formwork as it is very repetitively used, stiff, not flammable easily and removed easily without damaging the concrete structure.  Use thicker eucalyptus false work in order to avoid the bulging of concrete  The mixing is very local and it must be mixed using mixing plant and the proportion must be redesigned by using laboratory tests since the project is very huge and is constructed a high raised building.  Bar staggering around support also need a special attention or re designing because of that it hard to compact using vibrator through it.  The soil blended at the site must be as it is specified in the laboratory result and the equipment used for blinding must be effective in the mixing process.  Compacting of the soil more than 20cm in pit and other excavation is improper and it doesn‘t full fill the needed density. So, compaction must be in each20cm layer as specified.  A cover material could be used for curing for any casted concrete structure until it attains its strength.  Formwork should remove easily without damaging the concrete surface.  Addition of water for concrete casting should be known not by guessing.  Exaggerated design of some structural part of the building also uneconomical and must be studied its requirement before provide it.
  • HU ioT school of CUENg. Final internship report Written by: ESMAEL ARAGAW 2013/14 Page 44 Hosting company: K2N ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY PLC.  Use modern machinery or equipment for high productivity and to finish works on time. Ignoring the student suggestion also the problem in the site which is Unreasonable and illogical. The sources of this kind of ignorance mainly arise from under estimating of the student it must also avoid unless and otherwise it has a reason. Safety work around the site Human life is irreplaceable, which is susceptible of minor infections. Now days it has become common to hear accidents on the construction industry. The more the accidents are becoming redundant the responsibility of the contractors and the attention to give to safety of the workers is progressing to be paramount. Therefore, it cannot be denied to work on increasing the safety condition of the site. The most effective way of avoiding risks is the preventive strategy. As the health professionals use to say ―prevention is better than cure‖, it is more than reasonable to be abide by such motto. Less concerned safety rule, regulation and training are among the problem in the site. Safety of all working staffs and visitors should be observed to a highest care. Infliction of injury shall be minimized. For this prior readiness is very important. The safety management will be carried out with a special superintendent to be assigned on site. The superintendent will be assisted with a dresser to be employed for the site. Safety of the workers and visitors will be managed in the following strategies; Preventive Strategy: Success would only be possible if there are workers, who can give their potential output without fear of any unforeseen risks. While they are striving to achieve the targeted result, they may not be focused on their safety matters. This has to be taken care of by others, devoted for the same purpose. The preventive strategy involves the following elements: Orientation: - All working and visiting people must be oriented about safety and the care they have to take once they are within the territory of construction. Falls from scaffoldings, suspended slabs, roofs, ladders, lift holes, stairs, pits and the like are the potential risks that the workers should be aware of. Orientation must include on how to work with machines and equipment, the possible accident they may inflict and what rules and procedures they have to follow when working with. Signage: - Important signs that could remind people who are moving within the working location should be situated in a place where everybody can see or look. Firm Temporary Works: - All temporary works like scaffoldings and ladders should be made strong, so that they are able to withstand the possible load to come upon them. Temporary guards: Temporary guard rails should be made in places where there are open spaces where a person might fall down. Lighting: - Appropriate lighting must be delivered, if there need to work on the night times. Helmets: - Wearing of helmets must be mandatory for some staffs, supervisors and visitors as mentioned on the contract document. Such should be made ready available on site, with the appropriate coloring.
  • HU ioT school of CUENg. Final internship report Written by: ESMAEL ARAGAW 2013/14 Page 45 Hosting company: K2N ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY PLC. ACCIDENT ADMINISTRATION After involving the above stated methods of prevention of accident, there could arise different disastrous calamities within the project, which necessitate the application of most serious and acute acting administration. First Aid: - A dresser, who has relevant professional background will be assigned on site for any possible first aid. Secondary Treatment: Some accidents may require secondary treatment as a result of infliction serious injury. 4.2.2. Recommendation to the school The student goes to the internship class are owned by the university or the school and are given to the companies that use or teach us throughout the fore month. So, before and after we go to the companies the school must fulfill the following:  Evaluating and supervising student as they are in the site by sending mentors on time.  Giving courses that are appropriate for the site work before the internship class is commenced like report writing, quantity survey etc.  Working with the companies closely to address more knowledge to the student.  Sending the student on time to their hosting company.  Organizing students those reside in the same place to create a team playing skill and provide group working environment in order to share ideas.  Budget for the internship is not enough to student and it is not updated and not parallel with the price right now. Mostly those listed problem challenges the student at site and if the school can erase those challenges the intern student can do every work without being stressed and worries.
  • HU ioT school of CUENg. Final internship report Written by: ESMAEL ARAGAW 2013/14 Page 46 Hosting company: K2N ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY PLC. REFERENCE 1. Ministry of work and urban development proclamation ―Ethiopian building code of standard 2‖ Addis Ababa, ethiopia,1995 2. Frederick S. Merritt Jonathan T. Ricketts ―Building design and construction hand book‖ McGraw hill, six edition, 2001 3. W.f. CHEN, J.y.Richard LieW ―The civil engineering hand book‖ crc press, second edition, 2003 4. Su.PILLA, devadas MENON “reinforced concrete design‖ McGraw hill, second edition, 2003 5. Madan MEHTA, Walter SCARBOROUGH and Diane ARMPRIEST “building construction principle, materials and system‖, prentice hall, second edition, 2013 6. Construction material, geotechnical, quantity survey and structural handouts 7. www.k2narchitectureandengineeringconsultancyplc/facebook.com 8. www.wekipedia.com http://www.k2narchitectureandengineeringconsultancyplc/facebook.com http://www.wekipedia.com/
  • HU ioT school of CUENg. Final internship report Written by: ESMAEL ARAGAW 2013/14 Page 47 Hosting company: K2N ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY PLC. APPENDIX Ebcs Ethiopian building code of standard fck characteristic compressive strength of concrete fcd design compressive strength of concrete γc partial safety factor for concrete γs partial safety factor for steel C-5 concrete that have 5mpa compressive strength C-20 concrete that have 20mpa compressive strength FD field dry density Ld laboratory dry density
  • HU ioT school of CUENg. Final internship report Written by: ESMAEL ARAGAW 2013/14 Page 48 Hosting company: K2N ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY PLC. ESMAEL ARAGAW Phone number +251910636957 or +251935449326 Email address borntochallenge@yahoo.com or esmuchallenge@gmail.com mailto:borntochallenge@yahoo.com mailto:esmuchallenge@gmail.com School of civil and urban engineering declaration main body
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  • Institute of technology School of civil and urban engineering FINAL INTERNSHIP REPORT By: ESMAEL ARAGAW SECTION: 08 ID.NO. : 0613/03 HOSTING COMPANY: K2N ARCHITECTURAL AND ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY PLC DURATION OF THE INTERNSHIP: 11/11/2013 to 21/02/2014 Submission date: 28/02/2014
  • HU ioT school of CUENg. Final internship report Written by: ESMAEL ARAGAW 2013/14 Page i Hosting company: K2N ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY PLC. Declaration I hereby declare that the project work entitled "FINAL INTERNSHIP REPORT" submitted to the HU School of civil and urban engineering, is a record of original work done by me under the guidance of my esteemed mentor DERIES BZUALEM and my site supervisor resident engineer MILAT. And this project work is submitted in the partial fulfillment of the requirements for the internship session of 2013/14 held for 4th year student of Hawassa university school of civil and urban engineering. The results embodied in this report have not been submitted to any other University or Institute for the award of any type of work. ABBROVED BY NAME OF SUPERVISOR: __________________ NAME OF MENTOR: _________________ SIGNITURE: __________ SIGNITURE: ___________ HOSTING COMPANY STAMP
  • HU ioT school of CUENg. Final internship report Written by: ESMAEL ARAGAW 2013/14 Page ii Hosting company: K2N ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY PLC. Acknowledgment First of all I would like to thank every families and friends that participate on my life and get me in this intensity and individuals who support and share idea and also helping me to be like this. I am very thankful to K2N ARCTICT AND ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY PLC. For having given me the opportunity to undertake my four month internship class in their working area. It was Avery good learning experience for me to have worked at this area. I would like to convey my heartiest thanks to resident engineer ANTENH and MILAT and all staff member works in Hawassa unit. I would also thank my mentor DERIES BIZUALEM for his endless support at site and in his office by consulting me how do things in the site and how to write this report in outstanding manner, All teachers of civil and urban engineering who brought me to my present performance and shape me like this during the last three successive years. Before I finish I would like to give my deepest thanks to all workers from the contractor and the consultant side starting from engineers to daily laborers. Also for those who do not listed in the above but support me in different areas I would like thank all. Name: Esmael Aragaw Date: 17/02/2014
  • HU ioT school of CUENg. Final internship report Written by: ESMAEL ARAGAW 2013/14 Page iii Hosting company: K2N ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY PLC. Abstract The internship report in broad-spectrum contains four chapters in which I try to explain my four month experience in my hosting company. The content of all chapters is broadly explained and it is constructed from the practical basis of the site work ended all months. In the opening chapter I give details to the company background including its mission, vision, the project those runs trough the company consultation. In this chapter I put all record or history and futurity of my hosting company with its official address. So, it is give details of the company in terms of reader can easily know and access the company. The second chapter is the most hunted chapter which explains my overall internship familiarity in the last successive months. This chapter is the main chapter and I record on it the overall work I have been executing. It gives a high light what I have been doing and main works of the construction industry. After all those chapters explained above I goes to the third chapter and explains the main benefits of the internship class in terms of different aspects and areas. It is obvious that the internship has a plus in terms of improving skills and different abilities as a whole. The advantages and gains of the internship putted in short and prices way to grasp the attention of readers and evaluators. The final and fourth chapter explains about the winding up and suggestion on the project that our company runs. Inside the site we get many things which are appropriate and inappropriate for work in building construction, thus I comment and give my recommendation in some conditions and workings.
  • HU ioT school of CUENg. Final internship report Written by: ESMAEL ARAGAW 2013/14 Page iv Hosting company: K2N ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY PLC. List of table Table 2.1 format of take off sheet we have been used in the site……………………………………..15 Table 2.2 shows the format of bar schedule working paper we have been use at the site………….…16 Table 2. 3 shows the format of bill of quantity we have been used at the site………………………...17 Table 2. 4 relative compaction lab results……………………………………………………….……22 Table 2.5 form work removal period in our site…………………………………………………..…..25 Table 2.6 silt content and specific gravity lab test result…………………………………………..…29 Table 2.7 admixture used in the site………………………………………………………………….30 List of figures Figure 1.1 company organization flow chart…………………………………………………………3 Figure 1.2 akaki Addis textile factory project ……………………………………………………….7 Figure 1.3 Hawassa university project, library and laboratories picture……………………………..8 Figure 2.1 flow in the section………………………………………………………………………..11 Figure 2.2 pit excavation and trench excavation and masonry work……………………………….. 21 Figure 2.3 form work and false work………………………………………………………………..24 Figure 2.4 formwork to footing pad…………………………………………………………………25 Figure 2.5 form work for foundation column ……………………………………………………….25 Figure 2.6 form work to elevation column…………………………………………………………..26 Figure 2.7 shear wall, footing and slab rebar and its appearance at site…………………………….27 Figure 2.8 bar over lapping………………………………………………………………………….27 Figure 2.9 slump cone and concrete illustration…………………………………………………….32 Figure 2.10 expansion joint in footing and grade beam…………………………………………….33 Figure 2.11 concrete work………………………………………………………………………….34
  • HU ioT school of CUENg. Final internship report Written by: ESMAEL ARAGAW 2013/14 Page v Hosting company: K2N ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY PLC. Contents Chapter one 1. Back ground of the hosting company…………………………………………………………1 1.1 Introduction……………………………………………………………………………1 1.2 Vision……………………………………………………….…………………………1 1.3 Mission………………………………………………………..……………………….1 1.4 Core values…………………………………………………….………………………1 1.5 Quality assurance……………………………………………….……………………..2 1.6 Company structure……………………………………………….……………………3 1.7 Organization and management……………………………………..………………….4 1.8 Field of specification……………………………………………….………………….5 1.9 International experience…………………………………………….…………………5 1.10 Reference projects and service furnished by the company…………...………………6 Chapter two 2. Overall internship experience………………………………………………….……………..10 2.1 Joining of the company………………………………………………….…………….10 2.2 Section of the company I have been work…………………………………………….10 2.2.1. Flow in that section………………………………………………..……………11 2.3 Work piece or task I have been executing………………………………….………… 13 2.3.1. Office work…………………………………………………………...…………14 2.3.2. Site work…………………………………………………………………………19 2.4 Procedure I have been used when I perform work tasks……………………………….19 2.4.1. Setting out…………………………………………………………………………. 20 2.4.2. Excavations……………………………………………………………………..…20 2.4.3. Fill…………………………………………………………………………..…….. 22 2.4.3.1. Test on fill material………………………………………………….……..…22 2.4.4. Masonry work…………………………………………………………………...…23 2.4.5. Concrete form work…………………………………………………………….......23 2.4.6. Reinforcement bar………………………………………….……………………….26 2.4.6.1. Methodology…………………………………………….…………………….26 2.4.6.2. Bar splicing………………………………………………….……………...…27 2.4.7. Concrete……………………………………………………………….……………28 2.4.7.1. Constituents of concrete…………………………………………….…………28 2.4.7.2. Methodology…………………………………………………………….……. 30 2.4.7.3. Test on concrete…………………………………………………………….… 32 2.4.7.4. Joint………………………………………………………………………........32 2.5 My performance during accomplishing work tasks………………………………….….35 2.6 Challenges I have faced…………………………………………………………………35 2.7 Measures I take for challenges………………………………………………………….36
  • HU ioT school of CUENg. Final internship report Written by: ESMAEL ARAGAW 2013/14 Page vi Hosting company: K2N ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY PLC. Chapter three 3. Overall benefits of the internship……………………………………………………………. 38 3.1 Improving practical skill………………………………………………………………38 3.2 Upgrading the theoretical knowledge……………………………………………….. .39 3.3 Upgrading interpersonal communication skill………………………………………...39 3.4 Improving team playing skill………………………………………………...………..40 3.5 Improving leadership skill…………………………………………………….……… 40 3.6 Work ethics and related issues…………………………………………………..…….41 3.7 Entrepreneurship skill……………………………………………………………..…..41 Chapter four 4. Conclusion and recommendation…………………………………………………………..…42 4.1 Conclusions…………………………………………………………………………... 42 4.2 Recommendation……………………………………………………………………....43 4.2.1 Recommendation to the company…………………………………………...…43 4.2.2 Recommendation to the school………………………………………………...45 5. Reference ………………………………………………………………………………….…..46 6. Appendix……………………………………………………………………………………….47
  • HU ioT school of CUENg. Final internship report Written by: ESMAEL ARAGAW 2013/14 Page 1 Hosting company: K2N ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY PLC. Chapter one 1. Background of the hosting company 1.1. INTRODUCTION K2N Architecture and Engineering Consultancy Plc. is a multi-disciplinary Consulting firm, a reputation for responsive, innovative yet practical design approaches to complex Architectural & Engineering problems. Through their experience and dedication to the construction industry K2N consulting firm is committed to provide with the most professional, efficient and cost effective consultancy services. The goal of the company is to satisfy the most demanding construction needs in Ethiopia or elsewhere in the world. Registered in2001 EC, K2N is an architectural & engineering partnership providing design, supervision, consultancy and project management services and engineering solution for various categories of projects. With core staff strength of all professionals in affiliated engineering firms, and the use of the most recent information technology in the production of contract information, the firm has over the years acquired a thorough capability to execute medium to large scale project from feasibility through design and contract administration to completion and project administration. K2N Architecture & Engineering Consultancy plc is a dynamic organization of innovative professionals who share a common goal to render the best and most effective services to the demanding construction industry, which is sensitive to both cost containment and service levels. 1.2. vision Their vision to the future is becoming one of the leading Architectural & Engineering consultants in Ethiopia. 1.3. MISSION: Guided by their vision, they shall provide quality services exceeding client‘s expectations while adhering to the highest standards of technical and individual excellence through continuous improvement training and innovation.  Adding value to clients.  Nurturing and promoting talents.  Respecting employees‘ intense efforts and contribution. 1.4. CORE VALUES Unparalleled customer satisfaction and a spirit of challenge as well as change are core components of the K2N Architecture & Engineering Consultancy Plc. K2N have four basic values:-
  • HU ioT school of CUENg. Final internship report Written by: ESMAEL ARAGAW 2013/14 Page 2 Hosting company: K2N ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY PLC. • Clients service They add value to client‘s project through innovative solutions. Consistency and knowledge in dealing with clients has contributed to fulfillment and corporate success. • Excellence They are resilient and persistent in talking on challenging goal and setting higher performance benchmarks that helps them to excel in every way that is meaningful to clients, employees and vendors. • Quality They are driven to attend to client‘s concern responsively towards delivering commitments. • Employees The company pursues business opportunities that will enable them to be competitive by empowering employees to take on initiative and at the same time promote ownership of responsibilities and accountabilities to results and performance. 1.5. QUALITY ASSURANCE • Quality Policy They are committed to become a leading Architectural and Engineering consultant in the country by providing value added services in a quality conscious environment that not only exceeds the expectation of customers, vendors‘ employees and shareholders, but also raises the standards of excellence in industry. We are committed to achieve our goal by continually improving people, processes and products. Quality Objectives • To win major projects and attain premier in the industry. • To successfully execute projects undertaken. • Continues development of competence & skill based on K2N human resources.
  • HU ioT school of CUENg. Final internship report Written by: ESMAEL ARAGAW 2013/14 Page 3 Hosting company: K2N ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY PLC. 1.6. COMPANY STRUCTURE Figure 1.1 company organization flow chart COMPANY ADDRESS The company currently maintains its office in Addis Ababa on MikeLilandstreet, NB business center 3 rd floor office No. 303. The complete profile as follows: Ethiopia, Addis Ababa Sub city - Bole, Woreda - 04, House No. 327/1 TIN: 0005244692, VAT: 1058060010 ARCHITECTURE BUILDINGS ENGINEERING STRUCTURAL ELECTRICAL CONTRACT ADMIN.& SUPERVISION FINANCE &ADMIN. SITE COORD. QUAN. SERV. FINANCE LIASON OFFICER GENERAL MANAGER SITE SUPERVISION SANITARY MECHANICAL OFF.ASSISTANCE LANDSCAPE INTERIOR URBAN PLANNING ADMININSTRATION AUDIT LEGAL SERVICE
  • HU ioT school of CUENg. Final internship report Written by: ESMAEL ARAGAW 2013/14 Page 4 Hosting company: K2N ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY PLC. Ministry of works registration: BO/CAE/236 Mike Leland Street, NB business center Third floor, office No. 303 Tel /line/: +251-118-965804 Mobile: +251-930-077603 Fax: +251-116-620364 P. O. Box: 33667 Web site - www.K2Nconsultants.com, E-mail - info@k2nconsultants.com 1.7. ORGANIZATION AND MANAGMENT In every organization, the most important asset is the people that play essential role in the performance of the company‘s functions and responsibilities. Thus, K2N architecture & engineering consultancy plc is fortunate to have highly qualified and experienced personnel. Reciprocally, K2N Architecture &Engineering Consultancy plc has aimed to provide its employees all the basic necessities while performing their assigned tasks and at the same time equip them through training and seminars to enhance their capabilities. The company as organization and the employees, because of the mutual benefits that simultaneously being enjoyed by, has grown tremendously and has blazed a track record of fulfilling its obligation and commitment both the customers and the community. They would like to be on the level where they should be .Having confidence in the organization, they aim high. The teamwork that has been developed through the years of hard work has reaped a harvest of opportunities and wealth. They will continue to improve and develop new concepts both in management and technology. The firm is capable of furnishing well coordinating Architectural and civil engineering design services by utilizing its in-house staff as well as its professional associates. All engineering services carry the quality control assurance and guaranty of the company firm. K2N Architecture &Engineering Consultancy Plc. carried out any project by forming a dedicated project team. Each team is headed by a senior design engineer and draftsmen enough to complete the project in schedule. Design teams are dynamically managed to accommodate necessary and fluctuating workload and tights schedules. Flexible teaming capability enables K2N to undertake large and small project with the lowest overhead coasts thus providing the best value to the client. mailto:info@k2nconsultants.com
  • HU ioT school of CUENg. Final internship report Written by: ESMAEL ARAGAW 2013/14 Page 5 Hosting company: K2N ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY PLC. 1.8. FIELDS OF SPECIALIZATION K2N Architecture &Engineering Consultancy plc is specialized in Architectural, Structural, Electrical, Sanitary and Mechanical design and construction management of commercial, residential, industrial, educational, military, sport facilities, hotel and office buildings as well as earth and rock fill dam, concrete dams, tunnels, water and distribution, drainage, waste water solid waste disposal, motor ways, and high ways, air field, terminals etc... SERVICES:  Engineering and Architectural design;  civil / structural design, Maintenance Management;  Cost Estimating, Contract Administration ;  Tender Documents preparation;  Bid evaluation;  Pre investment studies;  Regional development planning;  Resources surveys,  Technical feasibility;  urban planning;  Construction Management and supervision ,  project management ,  soil investigations,  Topographic Surveys  Construction supervision 1.9. INTERNATIOMAL EXPERIANCE K2N architecture & engineering consultancy plc is in close contact with American, German and Turkish based consulting engineering and Architecture firms and worked with them in varies forms.
  • HU ioT school of CUENg. Final internship report Written by: ESMAEL ARAGAW 2013/14 Page 6 Hosting company: K2N ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY PLC. FINANCIAL STANDING The office has been established with a capital of over two hundred thousand birr. It has its own vehicle, office equipments and all accessories which are relevant in the field of specialization. The organization is free from bank loans and other debits. The office maintains sound income and financial stability. REGISTRATION THE OFFICE HOLDS THE FOLLOWING LEGAL REGISTRATION AND LICENSES 1. Addis Ababa city administration urban development and work Bureau 2. Ministry of trade, Industry and tourism principal registration certificate 3. Addis Ababa administration trade, industry & tourism bureau. 4. Value added tax registration. ASSOCIATION AND PROFESSIONAL ORGANIZATION 1. Ethiopian Architects & Engineers Associations 2. Addis Ababa chamber of Commerce Sectoral Associations COMPLIANCE WITH APPLICABLE CODES, K2N uses Ethiopian building code of standard (EBCS), Ethiopian standard code of practice (ESCP), Euro code 2-1992 (used by the software), regional and national standard according to the requirement of the civil structures and Architectural design principles. ENGINEERING & SUPPORTING SOFTWARES K2N uses engineering & supportive software‘s that are used by all professionals which are the most updated. 1.10. REFERENCE PROJETS AND SERVICES FURNISHED BY K2N Following is descriptions of some of the major projects handled by the company in Architectural, structural design or other engineering schemes. 1. AYKA ADDIS TEXTILE FACTORY AYKA Addis is one of the biggest textile factories in Ethiopia. It lies on 20 Hectare plot of Land. It has five buildings Spinning 1(14,000 m 2 , Spinning 2 (22,500 m 2 ), Knitting Plant (8000 m 2 ), Dyeing Plant (18,000 m 2 ), Garment (G+4 + Basement, 26,000 m 2 ) and Store -1 (6000 m 2 ) and Store 2 (2500 m 2 ).
  • HU ioT school of CUENg. Final internship report Written by: ESMAEL ARAGAW 2013/14 Page 7 Hosting company: K2N ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY PLC. Project: Cable Factory Value: 33 Mill USD. Client: AYKA Addis Consultant: K2N architecture &Engineering Consultancy Plc. Service rendered: Structural design, detailing and supervision Figure 1.2 akaki Addis textile factory project 2. HAWASSA UNIVERSITY PROJECT A groundbreaking project in which the company awarded a national Architectural competition in 2012, while the university floated a competition for three packages. The project consists of a mega civil engineering laboratory, Mechanical engineering laboratory, Electrical engineering laboratory, chemical engineering laboratory, Biosystems laboratory, Technology library, Three dining halls, ICT center, main store and kitchen store. The design work for all is completed and now it is in tender process for the selection of contractors.
  • HU ioT school of CUENg. Final internship report Written by: ESMAEL ARAGAW 2013/14 Page 8 Hosting company: K2N ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY PLC. Figure 1.3 Hawassa university project library and laboratories picture Project: Hawassa university package I Value: 600 Mill ETB. Client: Hawassa University Consultant: K2N architecture & Engineering Consultancy Plc. Service rendered: All schemes of design, Contract administration and supervision
  • HU ioT school of CUENg. Final internship report Written by: ESMAEL ARAGAW 2013/14 Page 9 Hosting company: K2N ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY PLC. 3. WOLAYTA ZONE POLICE DEPARTEMENT HEAD OFFICE This is also an award winning project in an Architectural competition held in 2012 by SNNPR state design and construction supervision authority. Project: Wolayta zone police department head office Value: 30 Mill ETB. Client: Wolayta zone police department Consultant: K2N architecture & Engineering Consultancy Plc. Service rendered: All schemes of design and specifications AWARDS K2N has the following awards  First prize winner Hawassa University Engineering laboratories /package I/  First prize Winner Wolayta Zone Police department head office  Second prize winner United Bank head quarters  Third prize winner Ethiopian parliament competition COMPETITION ENTRIES  Oromia International Bank headquarters competition CLIENTS The following are K2N‘s esteemed clients  Hawassa University  Wolayta zone police department  Addis Ababa city administration  Ayka Addis textile factory  Aturplc  SygenDimma textile factory  Sygen BM  SVP textile  Embassy of Gambia  Oromya regional state health office and Flintstone engineering
  • HU ioT school of CUENg. Final internship report Written by: ESMAEL ARAGAW 2013/14 Page 10 Hosting company: K2N ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY PLC. Chapter two 2. OVER ALL INTERNSHIP EXPERIENCE 2.1. Joining of the company Since we finish 3 rd year class we got the application letter for internship from the school of civil and urban engineering. So, I have been searching a hosting company in the summer but I don‘t get any company that satisfy my own interest because they don‘t have the ability and the capacity to teach intern student and also some company reject student because student from other universities apply first. Due to those reason and other disabilities I did not find any company in the summer. After I come back to campus from the summer break I was preparing for the holistic examination like other students do. At last we take the examination and waiting for the result till announced cause if we did not pass it, there is no possibilities to take the internship program. Before we take the holistic exam I try to search any other company in the vicinity of our campus and my home town by calling and emailing but I did not have any. So, I come back to campus without getting any hosting company. After the result of our holistic exam is announced I applied a letter to the school to find me any hosting company. The university linkage search a company for around two weeks after the holistic result is posted. So, they send me with another student to the company called K2N ARCTHICTURE AND ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY PLC. Then we went there to begin the work and we ask the worker around there that were was there office. They shown as and we ask the resident engineer ANTENH and he gives us an orientation about the overall work we perform throughout the whole internship months and tell as we can begin our work tomorrow. As he told us we begin work and join the company. 2.2. Section of the Company I have been work My hosting company has many projects in our country as I mentioned in the company profile. Thus from those listed I have been working in the Hawassa university expansion of iot project. The project consists of a mega G+1 civil engineering laboratory, G+1 Mechanical engineering laboratory, G+1 Electrical engineering laboratory, G+1 chemical engineering laboratory, G+1 Biosystems laboratory, G+4 Technology library, threeG+1 dining halls, G+0 ICT center, G+ 0 main store and G+0 kitchen store. But when I was arrived at the site Civil engineering laboratory, Technology library, three dining halls, main store and kitchen store were the only ongoing project. The library building covers more than 12,000 square meters floor area. The two storey dining halls being identical and separate three blocks individually cover more than 3,300 square meters. In addition to these there are two more buildings which are under the same package. These are Main Store and Kitchen Store. They respectively cover 2,500 and 1,500 square meters. Because of my company was consultant for the building that the new HUiOT campus building I have the opportunity to work in two different department. This are; 1. Engineering consultancy from consultant side. 2. Building works from the contractor side.
  • HU ioT school of CUENg. Final internship report Written by: ESMAEL ARAGAW 2013/14 Page 11 Hosting company: K2N ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY PLC. Our hosting company was a consultant it has so many responsibilities. First the client compute bid for their drawing(architectural drawing) after they selected by the client they supply a working drawing like structural drawing, sanitary drawing, electrical drawing in one copy based on the agreement and the total project cost(bill of quantity) for the contractor after the contractor officially announced by the client. Then construction begins starting from mobilization and office building. The consulting work includes so many tasks such as inspecting of the site, quality control and safety of workers. In the site works executed based on the agreement between the client and the contractor. This document is called contract document so the consultant checks every trade of work is executed based on the contract document and the working methodology. Drawings and design also from the consultant side. 2.2.1. Flow in the section The working flow of the consultant and the contractor has many advantages in order to work every task closely and to solve problems arise between them. In every work there is a work flow whatever small is the section, my working site at Hawassa university project the work flow was look like the chart below. As shown in the chart every work was executed based on this flow. Figure 2.1 flow in the section 1. Design and supervision team The team includes structural engineer, architectural engineers, sanitary engineers, electrical engineers and other experienced engineers in other professions. The design and supervision team is a team from the resident engineer progect manager office engineer forman skiled and non skiled workers surveyor Design and supervision team
  • HU ioT school of CUENg. Final internship report Written by: ESMAEL ARAGAW 2013/14 Page 12 Hosting company: K2N ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY PLC. consultant side which guide every work executed in that site and gives supervision for the contractor based on the drawing and the specification (bill of quantity). This team mostly comes to the site when there is amiss understanding on drawings, working techniques, drawing detailing error, and for meeting between the three parties. The team provides continuous service to the project from start to finish, establishing and maintaining the quality and integrity of each design. 2. Resident engineer Position is responsible for multiple construction projects or a single project of a large scale requiring multiple disciplines. This includes reviewing design; supervising construction progress and scheduling; starting up process systems/equipment or facilities for turning over to the owner's personnel. Supervise field staff and contractors on the site with responsibility for quality construction in accordance with plans and specifications. He/she also responsible for approval of change orders, invoices, and payment applications which may include final payment. So, the resident engineer mostly control every work as much as possible in terms of their quality, cost and time. Testing of materials delivered at site and safety of workers starting from managers to daily labors also the duty of the resident engineer. 3. Project manager The project manager has so many responsibilities at the site and in our site these positions is accountable for the contractor or the owner and are appointed by the owner of the construction company. The main duty of the manager is Manages the whole site work execution, Makes payment to sub contract workers, Approves material request, Analyses the work processes, Executes sub-contracting agreements, Reviews and checks the reports made by the office engineer. 4. Site engineer Site engineer shall be accountable for the following tasks and responsibilities:  Studying the work plan submitted by the contactor and suggests any modifications.  To watch and inspect the construction work and assure that it is done in full accordance with the drawings, technical specifications and bills of quantities.  Supervising the works on site in accordance with the contract documents and using the template and procedure established by the consultant.  Inspecting and testing materials prior to their use at site as per sample approved by the consultant and ensuring removal of rejected material out from site.  Ensuring the correct implementation of the works according to technical specifications, to designs and quality of materials  Checking of layout and setting out of buildings with respect to existing structures and site levels.  Checking and testing of completed works before they are covered by the contractor, taking photos on a regular basis and also on account of defective work.  Ensuring that health and safety measures are adopted and followed to the full extent.  prepare weekly report and suggest and instruct additional safety measures if needed
  • HU ioT school of CUENg. Final internship report Written by: ESMAEL ARAGAW 2013/14 Page 13 Hosting company: K2N ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY PLC.  Maintain a filing system for all site memos and instructions, measured quantities of work and materials on site, reports and other documents and correspondence pertaining to the construction activities and  Maintain a site order book to be made available for the consultants and senior officers to write comments or defects in construction noticed during site visits and carrying out compliance at site. 5. Forman A foreman is the worker or tradesman who is in charge of a construction crew and is a skilled supervisor who is responsible to work side by side with the project manager, property owner, and other construction design engineers in order to complete a project in a given time limit. His job is to employ the suitable workers on the various tasks to complete the job, and supervise all phases of the construction project from start to end or supervise only a portion of the building process Normally the foreman is a construction worker with many years of experience in a particular trade who is charged with organizing the overall construction of a particular project. Typically the foreman is a person with specialist knowledge of a given trade who has moved into the position and is now focused on an overall management of all trades rather than any particular specialized group. A good foreman is the keystone of their projects since they control every work more closely than the others like project manager, site engineer etc. the Forman also have a duty of motivating workers and choosing good workers for every aspects of work. 6. Surveyor In any construction a surveyor is mandatory so, in our site the surveyor works starting from setting out to checking verticality, keeping the natural level of the building, checking elevation of columns. 7. Skilled and non-skilled persons This group includes masons, carpenter, bar benders and the daily laborers. In our country workers of such group are appointed only by experience these have its own advantage on the constriction. They work everything as they ordered by withier the Forman or the site engineer. 2.3. Work piece or task I have been executing Actually I assigned from the university to work with consultants but consultation is not easy task to perform especially for students because it needs experienced and further specialized person in the field and most of the work is not parallel with civil engineering it has different field within it. So, to know every work what civil engineers do I try to work and share experience with contractor in addition to consultant. And also the consultant main work at the site is controlling time, cost, quality and safety of workers so those work needs inspection, test conducting and taking different measures when the contractor don‘t execute it properly. Their main work is to advice and provides abettor idea how the project will finish with a minimum cost, time and quality.
  • HU ioT school of CUENg. Final internship report Written by: ESMAEL ARAGAW 2013/14 Page 14 Hosting company: K2N ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY PLC. Generally I have been working in the two sections as mentioned above. I classify the work in to office work and site works, mostly the work I have been executing on the site is supervising, working as a site engineer, surveyor and Forman. 2.3.1. Office work In my four month internship period I experience Office works that are worked mostly at the site this includes some tasks performed by office engineer and quantity surveyor. Such as; I. Taking off II. Bill of quantity III. Report writing IV. Reading and interpreting drawings Taking off This is the process of preparing / defining a detailed list of all labor and materials necessary for the work and entering the items on properly dimensioned paper. The standard form used for entering the dimensions taken or scaled from drawings to determine the accurate quantity in each trade of work, except reinforcement steel, is called take off sheet or dimension paper. The main aim of this sheet is for payment and cost estimation for purchasing and preparing bill of quantity. The dimension paper used for taking off is double – ruledA4 size paper as shown below
  • HU ioT school of CUENg. Final internship report Written by: ESMAEL ARAGAW 2013/14 Page 15 Hosting company: K2N ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY PLC. Table 2.1 format of take off sheet we have been used in the site. Take off sheet Project; ________ block type; _______ Client; ________ location; _______ Consultant; ________ Contractor; ________ 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 Column 1 is used for stating the number of times an item occurs and is called the timesing column. Column 2 is called dimension column as it is used to enter the dimensions of the items of works. The dimensions are entered in the order indicated below: Length, Width, Height or thickness. Column 3 is called squaring column. The stated dimensions in column 2 are multiplied to determine the quantity of the work either in ml, m 2 , m 3 or in Pcs. or No. Whereas column 4 is called description column and description of the work item is briefly stated. Based on the above format I have been calculating the quantity of concrete in m 2 and in m 3 , formwork in m 2 and excavation in m 3 . We were use m 3 for depth greater than 30 cm and if it is less than we use m 2. A separate sheet (Bar Schedule) is used to prepare reinforcement quantities as shown below. Bar schedule is used to know the amount of rebar used on the site and to tell the bar bender that the amount of bar needed in some position of the building and its number. The following tasks are part of the taking off (used to facilitate defining the quantities): Describing the item, bracketing (relating the description to the quantity), timesing, dotting on (adding to the timesing factor), the ampersand (ditto), waste calculations, deduction of items, correction of dimensions (nullifying).
  • HU ioT school of CUENg. Final internship report Written by: ESMAEL ARAGAW 2013/14 Page 16 Hosting company: K2N ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY PLC. Table 2.2 the format of bar schedule working paper we have been use at the sit Sheet no. ___ Bar schedule sheet Project; _________ Block type; _______ Client; _________ Date; _______ Consultant ; _________ Location; _______ Contractor ; _________ Item location Dr.no. Shape diameter length No. of bars No.of floor No. of member length ∑ L for each diameter Ø8 Ø10 Ø12 Ø14 Total length Weight in kg/m 0.395 * 0.617 * 0.888 * 1.209 * Total weight in kg ___________ ______________ _____________ Contractor Site supervisor Consultant * This numbers is drive from the formula Weight per unit length for Ф6 is 0.222 kg/m; for any other diameter ―d‖, with weight per unit length ―W‖: W = (d 2 /6 2 ) x0.222 where ―d‖ is the diameter of the bar. Bill of quantity The traditional purpose of bills of quantities is to act as a uniform basis for inviting competitive tenders, and to assist in valuing completed work. Bills of quantity are first designed to meet the needs of estimators, although some estimators say the bill format has changed to assist the consultants, in cost planning exercises through the widespread use of elemental bills. A contractor can also make use of the bill of quantities in many ways, for example:
  • HU ioT school of CUENg. Final internship report Written by: ESMAEL ARAGAW 2013/14 Page 17 Hosting company: K2N ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY PLC. 1. To plan material purchasing (note the danger in ordering from a bill: the contractor should always order materials from drawn information and the specification, making the contract administrator aware of any differences) 2. Preparing resourced programmes. 3. Cost control during the contract to ensure work is within budget. 4. Data collection during construction for bonus systems and feedback information for estimators. It is the format which is used in a bill of quantity to list (include) a short description of the specification along with its measuring unit, quantity and unit prices to determine the total Cost for each trade of item. In the site the bill of quantity is done by consultant with the contract document but at site we work it again for payment. Table 2.3 the format of bill of quantity we have been used at the site Project x Item Description Unit Quantity Unit price (rate) Amount _______________ _______________ Client Contractor There are four clearly defined steps in preparation of Bill of Quantities:  Taking off  Squaring  Abstracting  Writing the bill off quantity Report writing Reporting is a controlling / informative mechanism which will help in evaluating the status of a project. It entails us how we are accomplishing our set targets at the onset of a project. It will also help decision
  • HU ioT school of CUENg. Final internship report Written by: ESMAEL ARAGAW 2013/14 Page 18 Hosting company: K2N ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY PLC. makers to follow the status of the project without being present physically on the site. The reports should explain the history of the project .It should be realistic and self-explanatory. Numbers in a report are far important than number crunching. Putting numbers for a report writer like 10 % or 90% may be simple but the meaning for the decision makers is very vital. Putting wrong figures knowingly or unknowingly are devastating. Report Types The types of reports to be submitted in a project depends on project type; complexity; working habit etc. In our project we work the following reports  Weekly report and  monthly report Weekly Progress Report: This is the lowest report form. ( lowest means the level of view of the project is high).In short - it evaluates the accomplishment of the weekly plan and puts the next week schedule .This report will show the achievement/ drawbacks of the project at the broadest level and help the project manager ( PM) or Resident Engineer (RE) to solve the shortcomings at the grass root level. Major Contents of a Weekly Report: Project data ,Accomplishment of weekly Plan, Weekly labor and Machinery Deployment, Material Delivered to the site, major Problems of the week , Solutions given to the major problems, Anticipated problems to be solved for the next week , next week plan,... Monthly Progress Report: This is a report with a view of many eyes. This will be thoroughly seen by second level observers. The contractor, the client and the Consultant‘s representative will make an in- depth view of the report to have full information about the project status. This is a report where major bottle necks of the project will be narrated and the performance of the parties will be vividly seen. Major Contents of a Monthly Report: Accomplishment of monthly Plan, Monthly labor and Machinery Deployment, Material Delivered to the site, major Problems of the month , Solutions given to the major problems, Anticipated problems to be solved for the next month , next month plan..., Contractual matters -Delay Notifications (if any) , variations ( if any) ... Reading and interpreting drawings Drawings are the means by which the designer conveys the physical, quantitative, and visual description of the project to the contractor. The drawings are a two-dimensional representation of the physical structure that meets the objectives of the owner. They are also known as plans or blueprints In our site there were 4 types of drawing; 1.Architectural drawing 2.Structural drawing
  • HU ioT school of CUENg. Final internship report Written by: ESMAEL ARAGAW 2013/14 Page 19 Hosting company: K2N ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY PLC. 3.Sanitary drawing 4.Electrical installation drawing This drawing is the main language between the architect, designer and any worker at the site or office to build the model in position as specified by the designer and the client, based on the agreement. Thus to work as an engineer in the construction site it is mandatory knowing drawings and any other specification. Drawings are the most common means of communication for all types and sizes of project. Thus I understand each drawing and knew every symbol abbreviation for every section and I able to communicate with different workers using it. 2.3.2. Site work The site work was the very important task for me because the internship main objective lies over her and I have gain many knowledge from the site like communication skill, handling workers, management skill etc. within four month I have the ability to see many works from the project. The work task I have been executing at site is: - Supervising of works - Inspecting the worked element and how they work - Checking the work based on the given check list - Testing materials The site work in general overlay over the supervision part so I have been working as supervisor based on the given check list that our company give to us. Every work must be checked wither it is executed based on the methodology that the contractor provides to the consultant or not. If not the contractor must report the case why they didn‘t execute upon it. 2.4. Procedure I have been used when I perform work tasks The site work I have been perform was controlling how the work is going on and supervising the work based on the given check list which was given to us from the office. The checklist for site supervisors is issued in order to ensure a uniform system of supervision of building construction projects and as a result ensure the quality of construction. In the checklist the responsibilities, liabilities and limitations of the supervisor are briefly mentioned in the steps to the general terms. Details of construction are specified in the drawings, technical specifications and in the general and special conditions of the contract. The duty of mine was to ensure that the construction works are executed in accordance with the contract requirement. In the application of the checklist the details specified in the contract document always precede before the application and use of it. There are also tables and forms in the checklist that help as records of the incidences affecting the work and as references. In addition the standard technical specification was used as reference on the preparation of the checklist and shall always have precedence over the checklist. Therefore, I have been work most of my time at site to become more familiar with site works and to get more practical knowledge. Site work in general includes every kind of work executed at the site starting from setting out till finishing works
  • HU ioT school of CUENg. Final internship report Written by: ESMAEL ARAGAW 2013/14 Page 20 Hosting company: K2N ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY PLC. based on the given specification and methodology. The site work that I have been trough in the fore month internship period was in the sub structure work and super structure work exclusively. A normal building consists of two parts in general this are the super structure and the sub structure. Any structure below the ground floor slab level including the basement, retaining walls, ground slab, grade beam, and foundation is called a substructure. In most of the cases, substructure work can be categorized as earthwork, concrete work and masonry work. I have seen that how the excavation was done, concrete pouring, masonry work and back filling. Super structure is the part of a building which extend above the grade beam or everything above the sub structure includes slab(1 st floor slab), column, walls, roof etc. the purpose of the super structure is to enclose and divide space as well as spread load safely in to the sub structure. 2.4.1. Setting out A building is set out in order to clearly define the outline of the excavation and the center line of the walls, so that construction can be carried out exactly according to the plan. The basic coordinates of each building will be set in position in accordance to the given bench mark. Surveying will be carried out by total station through skilled professional. Performing the job by the cited instrument will enable the respective professional to decide and limit the real topography of the site. I didn‘t see this work but I try to grasp some knowledge by asking the engineers how it was worked and its main procedures. 2.4.2. Excavations Excavation is the first step of construction. It refers to the process of removing soil or rock from its original location, typically in preparation for constructing foundations, basements, and underground utility lines and for grading of the ground surface. Excavated material required for backfill or grading fill is stockpiled on the site for subsequent use. Excavation work I have seen was including bulk excavation, pit excavation and trench excavation. The main aim of the excavation work is to remove organic soils or unwanted soil for the safety of the building from chemical attacking. Excavation shall be carried out to the lines, levels, width, depth and grades and shown on the drawings, directed by the Engineer or as appropriate to the works to be placed in the excavation. Site clearance After receiving the approval of the surveying data, using the intended machineries the top soil excavation will be started. The organic top soil found on the upper layer to an average thickness of 20cm will be removed separately from the bulk excavation work. Immediate cart away will be performed following its clearance. This job will be carried out by loader or motor grader as may be suitable to the work. The use of loader will give the advantage of forthwith cart away as dump trucks will be ready available on site, while performing the clearance work. Moreover the clearing of the top soil by loader will bring an increased output result than the motor grader. Bulk excavation Bulk excavation was carried out after the removal of the top soil is executed. 150cm off set from each side of the site will be extended to the outer side and the work is performed for the intended average depth
  • HU ioT school of CUENg. Final internship report Written by: ESMAEL ARAGAW 2013/14 Page 21 Hosting company: K2N ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY PLC. of excavation, which is 80cm from the reduced ground level. Since they have the real and direct experience of working on the excavation of the University Campus, it was easy for them to manage. The removal of the soil with the mentioned type machine has a positive effect over increasing of the out pit than an excavator. However as they have planned to stock pile partly the excavated soil in the nearby location, which is not more than 200 meters away from the specific block, they also use excavator as a combination. The surplus excavated soil immediately taken off from site. As to whether the excavation is executed to the required level will be ensured by taking the level reading in the appropriate manner. The data was organized and supplied to the respective Resident Engineer for which he/ she may give an approval. The Work was arranged in a way before the coming of the heavy rainy season. Pit and trench excavation Naturally this activity follows the bulk excavation. Accordingly, before going into the direct excavation work, the site was organized in a manner that necessary profiles are put in position. Appropriate site lay out was made and all the positions of the pit excavation in their exact and right place was located. The settings out of these essential structural bases seek the approval of the Resident Engineer. The pit excavation works was started from the center and proceed in either direction, along the length of the specific site. Excavating the pit from the middle to the edges has the advantage to give right off way for the dump trucks to haul the excavated soil to the designated place. It avoids the unnecessary obstacles which will prohibit access to the pit under excavation and give additional access by either of the sides. Excavation of pit and trench was carried out by an excavator and manpower respectively. Excavation shall be carried out to the lines, levels, width, depth and grades and shown on the drawings, directed by the Engineer or as appropriate to the works to be placed in the excavation. Excavation shall be suitably trimmed and leveled before subsequent work is placed. In the event of over excavation without the approval of the Engineer, such over excavated area was filled with selected excavated or borrowed fill material approved by the Engineer and finished compacted. Excess volume formed in excavation was filled with selected excavated or borrowed material approved by the Engineer and compacted to the compaction standard requirements in the Fill Section of the Specification. Figure 2.2 pit excavation and trench excavation and masonry work
  • HU ioT school of CUENg. Final internship report Written by: ESMAEL ARAGAW 2013/14 Page 22 Hosting company: K2N ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY PLC. 2.4.3. FILL Fill work will follow the erection of foundation column. Bulk, pit and trench excavations need to be back filled with a better soil type, which will have better compaction character and would bring the minimum required proctor density. In order to attain the minimum standard as mentioned on the Bill of Quantity, they deploy appropriate machineries. Hawassa area has shown that the natural excavated soil alone wouldn‘t attain the compaction density based on the tested value. The soil should have to be blended with a granular material like red ash. The excavated soil was deposited somewhere close to the project site and it was blended there with the red ash to be borrowed from outside. The blending process involves different machineries like loader, excavator, and dump trucks. After blending it was transported to the right place it has filled. The dump trucks dump it within the site laid out, and then the loader spread it to the required thickness, which is at every 20mm. Eight ton roller self equipped with water sprinkling device ram and vibrate it well. This was done to the bulk fill area. For the pit the same blended fill was utilized, but the machines that compact was different than the bulk fill area. Here the roller wouldn‘t apply rather it was performed by frog compactors. Water was sprinkled by hose (gerika) in order to increase the PI of the fill, so that it was compacted to the required stage. The final levels of fill was adjusted, graded and prepared to receive bedding to lay on fill. 2.4.3.1. Test on fill (compaction) An important part of the grading of the site often includes the compaction of fill. Compaction is defined as the densification of a fill by mechanical means. This physical process of getting the soil into a dense state can increase the shear strength, decrease the compressibility, and decrease the permeability of the soil. There are four basic factors that affect compaction: soil type, water content, material gradation and compaction energy. Therefore the main aim of this test on the back fill material is to improve this materials strength before it exposed to the floor slab load. In the site for backfill soil the contractors conduct relative compaction test at Hawassa University to fulfill the required fill category based on the specification. They take a test at the field (sand replacing or field density test) and at laboratory (proctor compaction test). Therefore they get the relative compaction using; Relative compaction = × 100 Based on this formula after compacting the field and the lab test the material was approved to use as a fill material for the footing, masonry retain wall and bulk excavations. The test result is approved if the relative compaction result shows 95% and above. Table 2.4 relative compaction lab result Material Field dry density(Fd ) kg/m 3 Laboratory dry density(Ld) kg/m 3 Relative compaction = (Fd/Ld)*100 (in %) Soil only 1146.64 1366.76 83.89% Soil and red ash 1348.04 1395.93 96.57%
  • HU ioT school of CUENg. Final internship report Written by: ESMAEL ARAGAW 2013/14 Page 23 Hosting company: K2N ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY PLC. So, based on the test result the soil and the red ash pass the requirement thus the fill used at site was the red ash and the soil together with the appropriate compaction rate. The ratio of blending is 1:1 ratio. 2.4.4. Masonry work masonry are works that are executed by laying building material units such as stone, brick and HCB of specified dimension by providing a binding material such as mortar. I got the opportunity to see masonry work under the grade beam on the periphery of the building. The masonry was built with roughly dressed stone wall of size not less than 300mm per course and 400mm wide. Stone used for masonry work shall be hard and sound, free from vents, cracks, fishers, discoloration or other defects that will adversely affect strength or appearance. After constructing masonry wall, the grade beam is constructed directly over it. It gives an appearance of additional stability to the building and also the clearance from the ground level. Note that stone wall is measured by volume and the masonry wall over lied in a c-5 lean concrete. 2.4.5. Concrete Form work As fresh concrete is in plastic state when it is placed for construction purpose so, it becomes necessary to provide some temporary structure to confine and support the concrete till it gains sufficient strength for self-supporting. This temporary structure is called form work. Concrete formwork serves as a mold to produce concrete elements having a desired size and configuration. It is usually erected for this purpose and then removed after the concrete has cured to a satisfactory strength. In some cases, concrete forms may be left in place to become part of the permanent structure. For satisfactory performance, formwork must be adequately strong and stiff to carry the loads produced by the concrete, the workers placing and finishing the concrete, and any equipment or materials supported by the forms. In the site the form work material we use was the plywood material which have a good surface finish. Plywood is used extensively for concrete forms and provides the following advantages:  It is economical in large panels.  It is available in various thicknesses.  It creates smooth, finished surfaces on concrete. Plywood is manufactured by peeling veneers (layer of wood) from a log in thin layers, then gluing these veneers together to form plywood panels. Depending on the panel thickness, different numbers of veneer layers are used. To produce a panel that has desirable properties in both directions, the grain direction in different layers of veneer is oriented perpendicular to adjacent layers. Laying panels with veneer grain in perpendicular directions in alternate layers is called cross-banding. Because of cross-banding, the mechanical properties of adjacent veneers are not the same. In our site the plywood used is 10 ply or veneer which is 5 veneers in one direction and 5 in the other direction. The general step used to construct a formwork in the site is:  Prepare the false works in the desired position and level.  Preparing the form work in a desired shape based on the drawing or the size of the structure that is going to be cast.
  • HU ioT school of CUENg. Final internship report Written by: ESMAEL ARAGAW 2013/14 Page 24 Hosting company: K2N ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY PLC.  Painting with a releasing agent if needed.  Nailing it with appropriate bracing element and false work. The type of formwork that would be utilized on our site was a combination of ply wood and timber (eucalyptus) where necessary. The purpose of employing ply wood and timber is to make sure that quality concrete with perfect alignment would result. For horizontal structures like reinforced concrete slab the ply wood without being cut was placed. At the same time for the beams they use plywood form work for the soffit and timber or plywood for the sides. For vertical reinforced concrete structures ply wood formwork with timber false work was used. As most of the elevation columns assume uniform size, the ply wood was cut in size and was produced in a manner it could be easily fixed and dismantled. The bracing was done from timber and nailed perfectly to confine the fresh concrete. Reinforced concrete slabs and beams formwork was supported and fixed on eucalyptus pops and props. Dismantling of the formwork commenced after the allowable dates have elapsed since the day of the concrete casting. Accordingly column and side formworks will be dismantled after 16 hours elapsed from the concrete casting and other soffit formworks should stay in position until the concrete gets cured. The dates of dismantling for the soffit formworks were shortened by the use of fast curing concrete admixtures. The use of these admixtures will allow them to move fast forward with the construction and immediate utilization of the formwork on other successive structures. Figure 2.1 form work and false work The formworks of any type and of any place will be required:  To be rigid enough to confine plastic concrete at the lines grades and dimensions indicated on the form plans without bulging or sagging under the load,  To be constructed as mortar tight as possible to prevent the loss of concrete ingredients throughout the joints between the sections, and  To be easy to remove with minimal damage to the concrete surface. In case of failure to attain the required strength the conventional date of dismantling the formwork will be respected.
  • HU ioT school of CUENg. Final internship report Written by: ESMAEL ARAGAW 2013/14 Page 25 Hosting company: K2N ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY PLC. Type of work Duration of Removal Table 2.5 form work removal period in our site Vertical column, walls and beams 16 hour Soffit work to slab and beam 21 days Props to slab and beam 14 days Formwork to Footing Pads: Most of the pads which have larger and similar size were made via plywood formworks. Those of pads with a smaller size were made via together fixed timbers of locally available type. Such formworks was dismantled and directly fitted to their similar type pads, successively Figure 2.4 form work to footing pads Formwork to Foundation Columns: A Foundation column with similar cross-section and height was identified and their respective formworks were made ready, in a manner that they could be able to use them in rotation. Figure 2.5 form work to foundation column Formwork to Grade Beams: together sawn timbers of locally available type were made ready for all internal and external surfaces of the Grade Beams. Formwork to Elevation Columns: same as explained in Foundation Columns. The only exception here was the height of the columns. Since the height of the columns in some of the blocks is different than the others, the formwork preparations were consider this fact.
  • HU ioT school of CUENg. Final internship report Written by: ESMAEL ARAGAW 2013/14 Page 26 Hosting company: K2N ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY PLC. Figure 2.6 form work to elevation column Formwork to Suspended slabs and beams: Plywood formwork was made available to all these parts of the structure. 2.4.6. REINFORCEMENT BAR Concrete is much weaker in tension than in compression. Its tensile strength is approximately 10% of its compressive strength. Therefore, concrete is generally used in conjunction with steel reinforcement, which provides the tensile strength in a concrete member. The use of plain concrete without steel reinforcement is limited to pavements and some slabs-on-ground. Steel is the ideal material to complement concrete because the thermal expansion of both materials is the same. In other words, when heated or cooled, both steel and concrete expand or contract equally. Consequently, no stress is caused by differential expansion or contraction. Composite materials that expand differentially are subjected to such stresses. Steel also bonds well with concrete. In a composite material, the bond between two materials is necessary for it to function as a single material. The bond between steel and concrete is due to the chemistry of the two materials, which produces a chemical bond between them. Additionally, as water from concrete evaporates, it shrinks and grips the steel bars, making a mechanical bond. The mechanical bond is enhanced by using reinforcing bars, or rebar, that have surface deformations. Because a mechanical bond is a function of the area of contact between the two materials, surface deformations increase that area, thereby increasing the bond. For the same reason, rebar that have a light, firm layer of rust bonds better with concrete. Rust that is produced by leaving rebar outdoors on a construction site for a few days or weeks is not objectionable as long as the rust is not loose or flaky. Loose and flaky rust should be scraped using burlap or a piece of cloth. Excessively rusted rebar should not be used. 2.4.6.1. Methodology Before bulk purchase and transporting to the site they was conduct tensile strength test from the store, by taking sample from a place where they are intending to supply the material. Such sampling will involve the Consulting Office and the result will be communicated. When they receive approval, as it fulfills the expected minimum tensile strength, they proceed to the purchase of the same. Place of deposit was made ready before its arrival on site where it should be damped. A platform elevated from the top surface of the soil, that would ensure the avoidance of minimum contact were prepared. Then placed there, and was protected from any detrimental moisture, grease or oil or other substances that may affect its quality. Shop drawing or bar schedule was produced by the Office Engineer, in accordance to the structural design. This shop drawing or bar schedule was submitted to the Resident Engineer and upon his approval mass production will be induced.
  • HU ioT school of CUENg. Final internship report Written by: ESMAEL ARAGAW 2013/14 Page 27 Hosting company: K2N ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY PLC. Bar bending workshop were situated in a place where it could be close to the site where the bar is going to be placed in position. The bending of all types of reinforcement bars was take place within the workshop. Except the column reinforcement bars all was tied and placed in position exactly in a position where they are intended to be situated. On the sub-structure work hauling was performed by labor. But on the super structure it is through the help of the mobile crane, that the required amount and type of reinforcement bar will be conveyed. After placing in position of the reinforcement bar and before the concrete pouring any dust particle was removed or cleaned. On horizontal structures like the reinforced concrete in order to maintain the allowable concrete cover depth or thickness concrete spacers was produced and cured and placed in position. Fig 2.7 shear wall, footing and slab rebar and it‘s appearance at site 2.4.6.2. Splicing of bar Reinforced concrete can function as a structural material only if there is a perfect bond (adhesion) between the concrete and the reinforcing bars. This bond allows two lengths of reinforcing bars to function as one continuous bar through lap splices. Sometimes it becomes impossible to get required length of bar or it is required to make use surplus small length of bar and may be the drawing recommend to splice bar at that position. Then it is necessary to give a suitable lap of bar as shown in the figure over each other to develop full strength. Figure 2.8 bar over lapping (splicing) When splicing or overlapping was provided in reinforcing steel they must be away from the section which have maximum stress. I.e. bar was spliced in the site for bottom reinforcement at the support and for top reinforcement at the center in a length of four times the larger diameter of bar for every structure. Splicing length=4×Ø Where Ø is the diameter of the larger bar.
  • HU ioT school of CUENg. Final internship report Written by: ESMAEL ARAGAW 2013/14 Page 28 Hosting company: K2N ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY PLC. 2.4.7. Concrete Concrete is a composite consisting of the dispersed phase of aggregates (ranging from its maximum size coarse aggregates down to the fine sand particles) embedded in the matrix of cement paste. This is a Portland cement concrete with the four constituents of Portland cement, water, stone and sand. These basic components remain in current concrete but other constituents are now often added to modify its fresh and hardened properties. This has broadened the scope in the design and construction of concrete structures. It has also introduced factors that designers should recognize in order to realize the desired performance in terms of structural adequacy, constructability, and required service life. These are translated into strength, workability and durability in relation to properties of concrete. In addition, there is the need to satisfy these provisions at the most cost effective price in practice. Since our building is a reinforced concrete structure the concrete work was commenced every day for constructing/development of every part of the building. 2.4.7.1. Constituents of concrete The constituents of modern concrete have increased from the basic four (cement, water, stone, and sand) to include both chemical and mineral admixtures. These admixtures have been in use for decades, first in special circumstances, but have now been incorporated in more and more general applications for their technical and at times economic benefits in either or both fresh and hardened properties of concrete. Cement Cement may be described as a material with adhesive and cohesive properties that make it capable of bonding mineral fragments (‗aggregates‘) into a compact whole. In this process, it imparts strength and durability to the hardened mass called concrete. The cements used in the making of concrete are called hydraulic cements so named, because they have the property of reacting chemically with water in an exothermic (heat generating) process called hydration that results in water resistant products. The products of hydration form a viscous cement paste, which coats the aggregate surfaces and fills some of the void spaces between the aggregate pieces. The cement paste loses consistency (‗stiffens‘) on account of gradual loss of ‗free water‘, adsorption and evaporation, and subsequently ‗sets‘, transforming the mixture into a solid mass. If the consistency of the cement paste is either excessively ‗harsh‘ or excessively ‗wet‘, there is a danger of segregation, i.e., the aggregate tends to separate out of the mix; this will adversely affect the quality of the hardened concrete and result in a ‗honeycomb‘ appearance. The freshly set cement paste gains strength with time (‗hardens‘), on account of progressive filling of the void spaces in the paste with the reaction products, also resulting in a decrease in porosity and permeability. Aggregate Since aggregate occupies about three-quarters of the volume of concrete, it contributes significantly to the structural performance of concrete, especially strength, durability and volume stability. In general, aggregates in concrete have been grouped according to their sizes into fine and coarse aggregates. The separation is based on materials passing or retained on the nominally 5 mm (ASTMNo. 4) sieve. It is common to refer to fine aggregate as sand and coarse aggregate as stone. Traditionally, aggregates are
  • HU ioT school of CUENg. Final internship report Written by: ESMAEL ARAGAW 2013/14 Page 29 Hosting company: K2N ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY PLC. derived from natural sources in the form of river gravel or crushed rocks and river sand. Fine aggregate produced by crushing rocks to sand sizes is referred as manufactured sand. Aggregate property and tests A number of tests have been described to assess the quality of the aggregate, in terms of the following physical and mechanical properties: • particle size, shape and surface texture: ‗size‘ and ‗shape‘ influence strength; ‗shape‘ and ‗texture‘ influence bond (between the aggregate and the cement paste) • Specific gravity and bulk density: of aggregate particle and aggregate whole respectively; • moisture content, water absorption and bulking of sand: the moisture present in aggregate or the moisture that may be absorbed by the aggregate, as the case may be, must be accounted for in the water content of the concrete mix; moreover, the presence of water films in between sand particles results in an increase in volume (bulking of sand) that must be accounted for in case volume batching is employed in mix preparation; • Strength: resistance to compression, measured in terms of the aggregate crushing value; • Toughness: resistance to impact, measured in terms of the aggregate impact value; • Hardness: resistance to wear measured in terms of the aggregate abrasion value; • soundness: which indicates whether or not the aggregate undergoes appreciable volume changes due to alternate thermal changes, wetting and drying, freezing and thawing; and • deleterious constituents: such as iron pyrites, coal, mica, clay, silt, salt and organic impurities, which can adversely affect the hydration of cement, the bond with cement paste, the strength and the durability of hardened concrete. From those listed taste the two tests (specific gravity and silt content) was conducted but I didn‘t have the opportunity to see those tests because our university send as a little bit slow from the anticipated time of intern ship due to different reason. The result was: Table 2.6 silt content and specific gravity lab test result Material type Specific gravity Silt content River sand 2.23 4.68 Coarse aggregate 2.446 Not conducted Water Water has a significant role to play in the making of concrete — in mixing of fresh concrete and in curing of hardened concrete. In order to ensure proper strength development and durability of concrete, it is
  • HU ioT school of CUENg. Final internship report Written by: ESMAEL ARAGAW 2013/14 Page 30 Hosting company: K2N ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY PLC. necessary that the water used for mixing and curing is free from impurities such as oils, acids, alkalis, salts, sugar and organic materials. Water that is fit for human consumption (i.e., potable water) is generally considered to be suitable for concreting. However, when the portability of the water is suspect, it is advisable to perform a chemical analysis of the water. Admixtures Admixtures are additives that are introduced in a concrete mix to modify the properties of concrete in its fresh and hardened states. Fast curing admixtures allow curing the concrete within 3 to 5 days after the date of pouring the concrete. Such application will only be made after the conduct of the test and the satisfaction of the Resident Engineer. The amount of the admixture to be added varies in accordance to the manufacturer‘s specification. All relevant documents and specifications will be available before conducting the mix design and test for approval. After the satisfaction of the Supervisor the Contractor will execute the successive duties. If the use of admixtures ensures the early curing of the concrete structure, the date of removal of the formwork will be dictated accordingly. In our site two type of admixture has been used. This are: Table 2.7 admixture used in the site Admixture name Use Dosage Epoxy resin concrete bonding agent (NITOBOND EP) For bonding of fresh wet concrete to existing cement surface. By spraying over the joint (not specified). High performance super plasticizing admixture, accelerator (CONPLAST SP 430) To provide excellent acceleration of strength gain at early stage and major increase in strength at all age by significantly reducing water demand in a concrete mix. Ranges from 1litter per 100 kg cement material. 2.4.7.2. Methodology The concrete work involves three types of concrete grades; C-5, C-20, C-25. Except for the lean concrete to the rest of the concrete types we are going to employ ordinary Portland cement of Derban Cement Factory. For the later prepare test cubes and sample was taken for different curing schedules. Fast curing concrete admixture for all horizontal but suspended reinforced concrete structures was introduced. The use of this admixture will bring down the date of cure to a considerable standard. Taking the advantage of this shortened date of curing, the formworks can be relocated in a speedy manner to the next successive job. The required grade cement was purchased and stored in advance. The secure of such important materials at the earliest possible time would have an enormous advantage. A store was constructed out of Corrugated iron sheet (both the wall and the roofing). A platform elevated from the natural ground level was made from dry eucalyptus in a very close spacing in one direction. A thick polyethylene sheet was placed on top of the wood and then the cement is stored. Gravel is in scarce around Hawassa town. In order to alleviate this scarcity they try to use different sources. One possible source is own crushing plant.
  • HU ioT school of CUENg. Final internship report Written by: ESMAEL ARAGAW 2013/14 Page 31 Hosting company: K2N ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY PLC. For this option we need strict support both from the Consultant and the Client. We will locate appropriate quarry and to make use of that quarry the respective governmental office should act at the soonest possible. This would be possible if and only if the un-interrupted continuous support is maintained from the Client. The mix design will comprise of the employment of fine aggregate altogether with approved sand quality. The concrete work requires machine intensive approach, so that relevant output could be implied. A stationary mixer of 750lit capacity and mobile mixer of 2500lit capacity was deployed for the batching of the concrete. The mobile mixer was self loading, self watering and self shooting, with the help of extra shooter produced on site. The stationed mixers will be supplied with dumper and the output also will be conveyed by the same to the specific place. As they are going to use fast curing admixture, the workability of the concrete increases, before the setting time begins. As the curing date will be shortened the project will be advantaged from time. The uplifted structures was essentially were supported by the mobile crane. Such mechanized approach is essential to fulfill the interest of the project to complete the task within the specified period of time. The maximum concrete work capacity within a day was 165m3/day. The concrete casting was stopped where allowable distances are covered with respect to the structural elements. The continuation was performed by creating a strong bondage methodology. Such bondage points do not exceed more than 1/3 distance from the nearest beam. Joints were treated with special chemicals like epoxy, so that harmonized structural concrete was established. Lean concrete(c-5): it poured and placed in position on a surface which presupposes trimming. The mix was made by utilization of 150kg cement /m3 of concrete in minimum. The cement use for such work was PPC. Footing Pad(c-25): after the form work is done concrete was mixed using the ratio of 1:2:3 ratios. The capacity of the self-feeder mixer was satisfy alone this amount. Since the mixer is reaching close to the pads and equipped with own shooter the pouring was easy. Foundation Column(c-25): It basically follows the finish of the footing pads. Forthwith the casting of the footing pad concrete and the placement of rebar and fixing of formwork, the same number of footing columns as the footing pads was casted. Concrete was poured by labor receiving from the dumpers. Grade Beam(c-25): Following the finish of masonry wall lean concrete will be poured in order to maintain even and level surface. Forthwith the placing of reinforcement bar and the formwork the concrete were poured. Where the casting of the concrete could not be finalized within the day proper joining places will be maintained like keeping the distance, 1/3 of the grade beams length. Ground Slab(c-20): c-20 grade of concrete was applied on ground slabs. After the works underneath are finalized and the horizontal level is maintained, the placement of the reinforcement bar mesh was take place. The next thing that will come is casting of the concrete. As all ground slabs are surrounded with grids of the grade beams, it was simple to cast on each grid, following the guide of level given by the grade beam. Elevation column(c-25): The same procedure was followed as the foundation columns. Though the height in some of the blocks is different than the others, the casting was monolithic.
  • HU ioT school of CUENg. Final internship report Written by: ESMAEL ARAGAW 2013/14 Page 32 Hosting company: K2N ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY PLC. Suspended Slabs and Beams(c-25): The concrete casting of suspended slabs and the adjoining beams executed at the same time. Before the casting of the concrete the placement and tying of the concrete spacers were carefully done, in order to ensure the required concrete cover. Dusts and other detrimental dirt were getting removed. After making sure that all surfaces are clean and the temporary structures are stiff enough the casting was induced. The library and the dining block suspended slabs and adjoining beams are of huge volume. Therefore, highly mechanized casting was deployed to carry out the duty. For the sake of minimizing the joints, the output of the work there was escalated. Into this effect, mobile crane and the self-feeder mixer were used. Working of extended extra hour was also observed. 2.4.7.3. Teste on concrete Testes conducted at site for concrete work was the slump test and the cube test. Un fortunaitly the broking of the cube test is not in the vicinity of our site som I can‘t see this test ecactly except the know how about it is conducted. Slump test is the most widly used test in the field and laboratory which is used to check the consistancy of concrete used at a construction site. It provides usfull onformation on the uniformity in the day to day or even hour to hour production of concrete.the main apparatus used for this test was 30cm hight, 20cm bottom width and 10cm top width cylinderical cone, 60cm tamping road and iron plate. The workability dependes on the reversed gap btween the cone and the fresh concrete after tamping and removing of the cone. So, the workability is classified as:  Very law when the height is 0-25mm  Low when the hight is 25-50mm  Medium when 50-100mm  Highly workable when 100-175mm Figure 2.9 slump cone and concrete illustration Based on the above principle we conduct atest at the site and the result was medium so, we proceed the work. 2.4.7.4. Joints Any joint, as in a physical break or gap between members, in a concrete structure or building is a potential weak link which may lead to serviceability problems, lack of durability or structural failure. Yet seldom, if ever, is a building constructed without them. In many situations they are necessary requirement (e.g. to accommodate anticipated differential movement between members) and are sometimes regarded as a necessary evil. The word ‗joint‘ is used in building parlance to cover elements which have to perform quite different functions e.g. beam-column joints and isolation joints. In the former the joint has to provide continuity of Inverted slump cone Slum p Slumped concrete
  • HU ioT school of CUENg. Final internship report Written by: ESMAEL ARAGAW 2013/14 Page 33 Hosting company: K2N ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY PLC. structural action between the members meeting at the joint. In the latter the joint has to ensure separation between the adjacent members to allow one member to move independently of the other. Expansion joints were provided to maintain a minimum resistance at a joint. Reinforcements don‘t extend across expansion joints. The joint was filled by a material called Styrofoam. An expansion joint prevents the continuation of cracks formed due to differential settlement, variation in temperature and long span of the building from one structure to the other. expansion joint runs through the entire building from the ground floor (or the basement, if provided) up to the roof. Two columns are used at the expansion joint. However, a combined footing may be used for the two adjacent columns. Construction Joint A special type of static joint that is provided between two concrete placements is called a construction joint or cold joint. However, in our site expansion joint is provided by the designer in order to separate the building to protect from anticipated accident. Figure 2.10 expansion joint in footing and grade beam The four basic reasons for requiring joints are because  The member or structure cannot be constructed as a monolithic unit in one placement of concrete;  the structure or member on one side of the joint needs to be able to move relative to that on the other;  The design assumptions for the structure or building need the joint at that point so the analysis is simplified. Mixing of concrete As I explained in the methodology part the concrete was casted in two different ways in the site. This are: 1. Using movable mixer (self-loading): this mixer is a wheel mounted; the production capacity is 1.38 m 3 concrete per batch. The time required for one batch is 20 minutes. The usual one round batch mix of this equipment is sand 2 boxes (by its own box size), aggregate 2.5 boxes and cement 10pcs was use for c-25 concrete. Expansion joint on footing
  • HU ioT school of CUENg. Final internship report Written by: ESMAEL ARAGAW 2013/14 Page 34 Hosting company: K2N ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY PLC. 2. Stationery mixers: (feed by man power) those are mixers that use ―nominal mixing‖ or traditional mixing of concrete. Their productive capacity is 0.227 m 3 and the time required for one batch is 6 minutes. The general mixing of this type of equipment was first an 18×40×50 box is prepare for c-25 concrete so, the laborer feed it sand 4 boxes, aggregate 6 boxes and 2 pcs of cement for one round batch. Pouring of concrete After the concrete is casted the next step is casting or pouring the concrete in to the required place. Before commencing the casting process supervision is made for the bars, spacers, different installations and the formwork if it was in the expected quality for casting. The equipment used for pouring is bucket to carry the concrete, tower crane and vibrator for compaction of the fresh concrete. Figure 2.11 Concrete work Concrete consolidation Once the concrete has been placed in the form, it must be consolidated. Consolidation is the process of compacting concrete to ensure that it has no voids and air pockets. On a small job, consolidation can be done manually with the help of a steel rod, whereby the worker simply rods into the concrete up and down and with some sideways motion. It is, however, more common to employ a high-frequency power- driven vibrator. This is typically an internal (or immersion) vibrator inserted into the concrete. An external vibrator is one that vibrates the form and is more commonly used in precast concrete plants. An internal vibrator consists of a rod connected to a flexible shaft. The vibrator is inserted into freshly placed concrete. As the concrete in a particular location is compacted, the vibrator is moved to the next location. Because the vibrator has a finite area of influence, the new insertion point must be fairly close to the previous insertion point. Curing The hydration reaction begins as soon as water and cement come into contact, but the rate at which this reaction proceeds is extremely slow. It takes up to 6 months or longer for concrete to gain its full strength. However, approximately 80% of concrete strength develops in 28 days. Approximately two thirds of the 28-day strength is obtained in the first 7 days and approximately half in the first 3 days. This is true only if sufficient water and favorable temperature are available for the hydration reaction to continue. That is why concrete test cylinders are kept in a moist chamber until tested. Providing moisture to concrete
  • HU ioT school of CUENg. Final internship report Written by: ESMAEL ARAGAW 2013/14 Page 35 Hosting company: K2N ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY PLC. continuously for hydration is called curing of concrete. A well-cured concrete is denser and, hence, stronger and more durable. On construction sites, curing is begun as soon as the concrete has fully set (solidified), which is generally 12 to 24 h after placing the concrete. Curing in the initial stages of hardening is extremely important and should continue as long as possible, not less than 7 days. It is the process of preventing the loss of moisture from the concrete while maintaining a satisfactory temperature regime. Curing is essential for producing ‗good‘ concrete that has the desired strength, impermeability and durability, and is of particular importance in situations where the water-cement ratio is low, or the cement has a high rate of strength development. So, curing must be conducted using potable water and covering of the structural element using covering material for at least 7 successive days to retain the moisture lost. In our site curing of concrete starts from the finishing of the pouring and ends in a 7 days. Mostly they cure at morning and night time. 2.5. My performance during accomplishing work tasks Absolutely good the reason behind this performance was I integrate with all workers within a short time and get involved in different site works to gain more knowledge about the working environment in the site and improve myself with more site works and office work. Since the site work is very repetitive I have been working in different section to get involved and pass through different peace of works. Especially the work tasks I have been performing in the office work were very impressive because I didn‘t have any knowledge about the quantity works, cost and report writing etc. In general in the last four month I perform all my duties nicely and get knowledge of the practical world and relate it with the theory I have learnt in the class in the last three years. Also I transform myself to another level of skill, ethics, knowledge and leadership using this internship class and I perform it well. 2.6. Challenges I have faced Construction projects are complex and time-consuming undertakings that require the interaction and cooperation of many different persons to accomplish. The construction industry is typically divided into specialty areas, with each area requiring different skills, resources, and knowledge to participate effectively in it. In order to integrate and work closely in each section it is a challenging task to one person especially when he/she is fresh or beginner. In fact some challenges may be solved by me but some are above my limit and even the workers at the site also. In general I have faced the following challenges in the internship period.  Communication problem with workers in the office and at the site.  Shortage of working drawings like structural, architectural, sanitary, electrical and some other details.  Weather condition of the site.  Shortage of knowledge in some portion of the work at the site.  Underestimation by workers such as engineers, Forman.  Unsatisfactory answers for questions from engineers.  Safety facility.
  • HU ioT school of CUENg. Final internship report Written by: ESMAEL ARAGAW 2013/14 Page 36 Hosting company: K2N ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY PLC. 2.7. Measures I take for challenges Communication challenge was the most dangerous challenge from all challenges because of that it blocks me from finding more knowledge from skilled workers and other persons those are closed to the site work. Their language at the site was mostly an Italian word that makes me more confused and it was uneasy to know those words within a few days. At last I was able to understand those words through experience and by working with the employees. Those words are:  Stirrup ................ staffa...............Shear resistance members of columns, beams and shears walls.  Plumb bob ......... tumbi...............It used for checking verticality of structural members.  Footing pad bars... girila............. Reinforcement bar mesh under footing pad  Bottom soffit........ phondo.............. Used as a formwork for beams and slabs at the bottom.  Side board .......... sponda........... Used as a formwork for beams and slabs on vertical sides.  Brace ...................mekesecha............Support a vertical side formwork of a beam and column diagonally  Scaffolding ......... kebeleto............. Used as a support of formworks of a slab and beam at the bottom.  Tee .......................kristi............. Support a formwork of a beam.  Profile ..................modini..............Used for setting out works.  String ................... sibago...............Used to maintain alignment.  Yoke .....................kerebat............Used to fix the form works together in their position. Those are the main site language I able to understand but there are some others language they used to communicate that I didn‘t able understand it still. Drawing shortage: since I have been working in the consultant side we, asked together the resident engineer. And he gives as in soft copy and hard copy as we want within a week. Weather condition of the site: since I‘m fresh to such work I have been in a big nuisance particularly in the first month to adopt this kind of working environment. The main challenge was the sun light and dustiness of the site due to construction equipment. I bought a hate from the market that is suitable for sunlight and I wear a sun glass to combat this warm condition. Shortage of knowledge in some portion of works like quantity, bill of quantity, taking off, bar schedule and report writing was some challenges I have faced in the site. To solve these problems I try to ask workers at the site and read related literature to know more about this works. Lastly I knew how to work those things. The underestimation and the answer were not solved throughout the month with some workers but I try to communicate friendly with some workers to make myself clear and to know more knowledge from workers. And the answering problem was aroused due to that the contractors have no idea about how the building is designed and some shortage of knowledge about the design. We ask the design supervision team when they come for supervision and monthly meeting of the tree parties and know how the structural design was designed and some other misunderstanding.
  • HU ioT school of CUENg. Final internship report Written by: ESMAEL ARAGAW 2013/14 Page 37 Hosting company: K2N ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY PLC. Our safety including employees was in danger throughout the four months because of they didn‘t have any measure regarding safety. But In the last two month they try to fulfill some safety materials like safety shoes, gloves and hale mates and they use signals in the site as well.
  • HU ioT school of CUENg. Final internship report Written by: ESMAEL ARAGAW 2013/14 Page 38 Hosting company: K2N ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY PLC. Chapter tree 3. Overall Benefits of the internship Internship is a class healed at site to provide an enhanced understanding of the outside working environment before the student graduate. Student like civil and urban engineering and other fields also take this practice. The main aim of this practice (internship) is that to teach students communication with different workers or employees, to improve practical skill what they learned at class, up grading the theoretical knowledge in addition to the class, improve their leadership skill, team playing skill and etc. In my four month staying at the Hawassa University institute of technology expansion project with K2N consultant I have acquire much knowledge in different tasks as explained below in different section. Those different knowledge gets me a good performance in the internship period and I gain an experience that helps me after the graduation in the upcoming working era of mine. 3.1. Improving practical skill The aim of the internship is to address more practical knowledge for student. So, I found a practical knowledge at the site as much possible within the four month. The knowledge we have learn in the class is helpful to get those practical or real work in the site and totally different from the actual knowledge gained from the class. Thus I found some knowledge in the site which helps me to work with the site environment or site peoples. Some of the practical knowledge I gain from the internship class was:  Construction of formwork and false work for some reinforced concrete structure. In any construction work the first stage before casting of concrete is designing and constructing of form work. As I explained in the work procedure the formwork and false work must be stiff and must resist the fresh concrete till the concrete gain its strength. Thus the construction stage of form work was new to me since I‘m new for the practical world now I gain practical knowledge about how it is worked and erected.  Bar bending, positioning, splicing and tying, according the specified drawing. After the formwork and false work is ready the bar bending, positioning and tying work goes next. This work is done based on the working drawing provided in the working drawings (structural drawing) by the design team of that specified structure. In most case it was new for me to see such work since it is a practical work only performed at the site.  Surveying on building construction. We conduct the surveying class in the field for its lab session of the course in the normal class. But we don‘t know about how it is going to be in building construction in particular and in which particular stage of the construction work it used either the super structure or sub structure.  Casting and pouring of reinforced concrete structure and equipment used for casting.
  • HU ioT school of CUENg. Final internship report Written by: ESMAEL ARAGAW 2013/14 Page 39 Hosting company: K2N ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY PLC. Concrete is a vital material in any construction of reinforced concrete and is the main constituent or ingredient of any reinforced concrete structure. Thus it is mandatory to know this material in practice including how it is treated, placed (poured), mixed and the equipment used for those work. I got the practical knowledge in terms of those listed aspects of concrete.  Different construction equipment (machines) and their use in construction site. Many of great structures before are a product of numerous human power and countless days inspired by great powers. Machines are capable of handling tough work which may be beyond the scope of human labor to be performed. They can be expected to work with fair degree of effectiveness even under adverse weather, climate or topographical conditions. I generally know how equipment‘s are used in the site including their specific purpose. 3.2. Upgrading the theoretical knowledge The internship class is not only depending on the practical aspect but it also help students to upgrade or increase knowledge on already that they have. I try to integrate the practical knowledge with that of the theory learned in the class in different place in order to get more knowledge than the theory we learned on the class. I got the internship class very interesting in terms of upgrading a theoretical knowledge and I learned from the site some theories that we haven‘t learn in the class room by searching different related literature. Some of this is:  Quantity surveying  Structural design of shear wall and its advantage  Construction equipment  Report writing I learned those things in exclusive cause it is hard to read and understand everything from books and asking some peoples at site to those things ashamed me. Generally I change myself alit bit after the internship period in my knowledge than before I took it. 3.3. Upgrading interpersonal communication skill Communication is sharing or exchanging information or ideas with others in order to get some messages and knowledge. The communications systems within the building design and construction enterprise has taken on a large role in the achievement of profitability and efficiency. A basic understanding of communication systems is beneficial to all building professionals and trades, as they all play a part in the success of the construction. Construction is one of the places that ask a good communication skill either managing every trade of work or asking what is gowning on over there. So, communication is an important way of learning, which can be defined formally as the act, process, or experience of gaining knowledge or skills and sharing what we know. Cool communication is important in the real constructions world and it can appear in different forms as speaking, writing, and listening. In the site the most things I gain is due to communication with other workers like engineers, skilled and non-skilled workers, Forman etc. in some place/case it is very difficult to talk workers and ask them what we want because of that they underestimate us and sometimes they are not eager to tell. But I improve and know how to communicate with different classes of workers in the site.
  • HU ioT school of CUENg. Final internship report Written by: ESMAEL ARAGAW 2013/14 Page 40 Hosting company: K2N ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY PLC. 3.4. Improving team playing skill Team playing skill for construction work Team works, especially for engineers, involve in every piece of task and achieving good team playing skill is essential for Effective completion of tasks and Increasing productivity. This skill already exists in my personality in the campus due to different assignment and project works that I work together with student. But this skill is more than this in the construction site. In the construction site the work is already a team work and it needs more closeness of workers to solve problems arise in different aspects, misunderstanding in the drawing or working methodology and consult every work. We the student at the site also works together as a team to get more understanding and share ideas. More or less I improve my team work status by working together with different professionals, student and workers as a whole in the civil engineering works and consulting. 3.5. Improving leadership skill Leadership is the process of influencing individuals or groups to accomplish an organizational goal or mission. I have seen how each worker is controlled and organized to perform its day to day activities. Among all other managements i have seen that human resource management is the most important one. i have actually observed the method of controlling the working time and amount of work done by each worker so that the work proceeds according to the work plan (schedule).Leadership is a skill to guide, control and monitor peoples. For effective leadership i understood that personal values like confidence, effective communication and devotion are very important. In order to be good Leadership the following criteria should be fulfilled. Those are:-  Be technically proficient (skilled with different knowledge‘s).  Seek responsibility and take responsibility for your actions.  Make sound and timely decisions.  Know your people and look out for their well-being.  Keep your workers informed.  Develop a sense of responsibility in your workers.  Ensure that tasks are understood, supervised, and accomplished.  Use the full capabilities of your organization.  Listening to others.  Being organized.  Able to communicate clearly and efficiently. In the site it was impossible to us to lead anything because we go to the site to learn about the site work and we don‘t have enough ability to handle such works in such short time but we have learned how to become a good leader and the main signal of a good leader. Finally what I take hold of is Becoming a leader isn‘t easy because it takes a conscious commitment and consistent effort to develop one‘s leadership skills. But on the positive side, anyone who is willing to make the effort can become a good leader.
  • HU ioT school of CUENg. Final internship report Written by: ESMAEL ARAGAW 2013/14 Page 41 Hosting company: K2N ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY PLC. 3.6. Work ethics and related issues The concept of work ethics may be summarized as the overall quality in one‘s behavior towards appreciating the process of work flow and performing rather well on the job so that this work flow will not be jeopardized in the long run. During my internship program, I could say that I have managed to do my side of the job description with a high spirit and enthusiasm so that there was a smooth flow of activities both in the office and on construction site. Work ethics involve such characteristics as honesty, responsibility, reliability, accountability and etc. Punctuality is one of the major issues that could be raised when talking about work ethics and on my side I tried meet this criteria by attending to my working station in time so that there will not be any delay on the activities planned for that day. The behavior that one shows towards his peers and colleagues is also one manifestation of the concept of work ethics. Personally, I always respected and gave priority the employers of the company. Elements of work ethics that worth mentioning are:-punctuality, honesty, reliability, office discipline, corporation and responsibility. We us a student should follow the rules and regulations set by the company and avoid complaining any work load, activity or assignment that may arise on the site or office. It is a pleasure of supervisors if we have a good work ethics and we are responsible for any given tasks. Since the aim of internship is to let students know the outside environment pertinent to their field, which includes of such the above dealt qualities, I was with the great interest that I tried to meet my responsibilities and work ethics that I suppose to be fulfill by my side. Generally, I can say I have gained the potential benefits by taking the Engineering Internship Program. Entrepreneurship skill Entrepreneurship can be defined as the process of involving the creation of new enterprises and that the entrepreneur is the founder. He or she is the person who perceives the market opportunity and then has the motivation, drive and ability to mobilize resources to meet it. A construction project mainly requires large human, financial, physical (material and equipment) institutional (management) resources. Entrepreneurship is special human talent that helps manage those factors of production such as labor machinery and capital and takes risks of making loses. An entrepreneur is required to establish meaningful relationship between activity and authority which is intimately related to planning function. This type of skill is a capacity to create your own share company with other. In our site the contractors or the consultant are a good example or a role model for me to become an entrepreneur and work my own bossiness rather working in organization as employed. But to become an entrepreneur especially in our country takes a time to know the business well and a capacity to work such work need more money that we already have before. Meanwhile I got some advantages regarding the entrepreneurship skill and I have a dream and motivation to become one of the greatest entrepreneur in our country in the upcoming years in the construction industry or any other working areas as a whole.
  • HU ioT school of CUENg. Final internship report Written by: ESMAEL ARAGAW 2013/14 Page 42 Hosting company: K2N ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY PLC. Chapter four 4. Conclusion and recommendation to the company 4.1. Conclusions The internship is a bridge between the theoretical knowledge and the practical or the reality work at the field of construction or civil engineering work. We all who take the internship class go to companies that already working either as a consultant or a contractor. The responsibilities of the hosting company are to teach student and shape them in the four month as a real site workers. My hosting company is a consultant team and they help me and my friends who took the internship session in this company in acquiring different knowledge in different positions. They collaborate with the contractors to teach us in that section and they believe that the civil engineering work is more important for us than the consulting office. This program played an important role to break the conventional thought that field works can be only implemented by students who hold a degree or people who have an experience in building construction. We were able to acquire a high level of confidence to deal with problems that arise in a building construction. Since I took my internship session in the consulting side K2N ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING COLSULTANCY of the Hawassa university expansion of iot, I get an opportunity to work in the different party of the construction work which helps me to gain more knowledge by seeing what they work in their own office and what is their main responsibilities to the client and also each other. Working with a consultant team gets me more knowledge than that of the contractor in case that the consultation work includes the duty of the site engineers and in the consultant office there are different office that are more important for me to upgrade my knowledge in different aspects of work. The consultant team by its nature includes designer team including structural engineers, architects, sanitary, electrical and mechanical engineers, the contract administration and supervision team includes site coordinators, supervisors and quantity workers and the financial office. This helps me to get more knowledge than the contractors. From the design team especially from the structural designers I got some clues about how to design and the phases and different procedure in the designing of any structure starting from the roof to the footing. The architects also helps me to know every symbols used in any drawing and room orientations, how each room of the specified space can be together without being disturbed by one another. in the sanitary and electrical engineers also help us by teaching us about the riser diagram and installation of each junction in place for a building. They help me to understand what is going to be when I work in the consultant office. The contractors also avail practical knowledge for us to improve our practical knowledge status in the field. And also the contractors make us more familiar with site works starting from communication skill, handling of different site works equipment utilization manpower control to finishing of the work within the time scheduled by the client.
  • HU ioT school of CUENg. Final internship report Written by: ESMAEL ARAGAW 2013/14 Page 43 Hosting company: K2N ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY PLC. However, this internship program was not free from challenges. The most challenge was the amount of money allocated to the project was insufficient to handle all the expense of the students during the internship experience and shortage of resource for student like computer, class rooms for student only and any other problem exist. But they come up with the challenges and teach us how we must gown to be in the field after the graduation. Overall the internship program laid sound foundation for us to start our career. We are proud to be able to contribute towards nation building during the country's extremely critical period of the history. It will be definitely sensible to scale this practice up and to replicate in other disciplines as well. 4.2. Recommendations 4.2.1. Recommendation to the company Most works in the site needs careful attention and successive supervision of works but the in some case the site works goes improperly due to different causes. This kind of carelessness is not good for ether the consultant or the contractor. Therefore I suggest supervisors and site engineers to take a care full look after the work executed on the site and the work that will be executed. In the site there are works which is performed in the way that not to be performed. Such works lids to safety problem, loose of human power if its degree is high and economy if it is ordered to demolish it. Thus I recommend for the company the following:  Testing of material before it delivered to the site and after it delivered and also when it is in use for construction.  It is better to use steel form work than wood (plywood) formwork as it is very repetitively used, stiff, not flammable easily and removed easily without damaging the concrete structure.  Use thicker eucalyptus false work in order to avoid the bulging of concrete  The mixing is very local and it must be mixed using mixing plant and the proportion must be redesigned by using laboratory tests since the project is very huge and is constructed a high raised building.  Bar staggering around support also need a special attention or re designing because of that it hard to compact using vibrator through it.  The soil blended at the site must be as it is specified in the laboratory result and the equipment used for blinding must be effective in the mixing process.  Compacting of the soil more than 20cm in pit and other excavation is improper and it doesn‘t full fill the needed density. So, compaction must be in each20cm layer as specified.  A cover material could be used for curing for any casted concrete structure until it attains its strength.  Formwork should remove easily without damaging the concrete surface.  Addition of water for concrete casting should be known not by guessing.  Exaggerated design of some structural part of the building also uneconomical and must be studied its requirement before provide it.
  • HU ioT school of CUENg. Final internship report Written by: ESMAEL ARAGAW 2013/14 Page 44 Hosting company: K2N ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY PLC.  Use modern machinery or equipment for high productivity and to finish works on time. Ignoring the student suggestion also the problem in the site which is Unreasonable and illogical. The sources of this kind of ignorance mainly arise from under estimating of the student it must also avoid unless and otherwise it has a reason. Safety work around the site Human life is irreplaceable, which is susceptible of minor infections. Now days it has become common to hear accidents on the construction industry. The more the accidents are becoming redundant the responsibility of the contractors and the attention to give to safety of the workers is progressing to be paramount. Therefore, it cannot be denied to work on increasing the safety condition of the site. The most effective way of avoiding risks is the preventive strategy. As the health professionals use to say ―prevention is better than cure‖, it is more than reasonable to be abide by such motto. Less concerned safety rule, regulation and training are among the problem in the site. Safety of all working staffs and visitors should be observed to a highest care. Infliction of injury shall be minimized. For this prior readiness is very important. The safety management will be carried out with a special superintendent to be assigned on site. The superintendent will be assisted with a dresser to be employed for the site. Safety of the workers and visitors will be managed in the following strategies; Preventive Strategy: Success would only be possible if there are workers, who can give their potential output without fear of any unforeseen risks. While they are striving to achieve the targeted result, they may not be focused on their safety matters. This has to be taken care of by others, devoted for the same purpose. The preventive strategy involves the following elements: Orientation: - All working and visiting people must be oriented about safety and the care they have to take once they are within the territory of construction. Falls from scaffoldings, suspended slabs, roofs, ladders, lift holes, stairs, pits and the like are the potential risks that the workers should be aware of. Orientation must include on how to work with machines and equipment, the possible accident they may inflict and what rules and procedures they have to follow when working with. Signage: - Important signs that could remind people who are moving within the working location should be situated in a place where everybody can see or look. Firm Temporary Works: - All temporary works like scaffoldings and ladders should be made strong, so that they are able to withstand the possible load to come upon them. Temporary guards: Temporary guard rails should be made in places where there are open spaces where a person might fall down. Lighting: - Appropriate lighting must be delivered, if there need to work on the night times. Helmets: - Wearing of helmets must be mandatory for some staffs, supervisors and visitors as mentioned on the contract document. Such should be made ready available on site, with the appropriate coloring.
  • HU ioT school of CUENg. Final internship report Written by: ESMAEL ARAGAW 2013/14 Page 45 Hosting company: K2N ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY PLC. ACCIDENT ADMINISTRATION After involving the above stated methods of prevention of accident, there could arise different disastrous calamities within the project, which necessitate the application of most serious and acute acting administration. First Aid: - A dresser, who has relevant professional background will be assigned on site for any possible first aid. Secondary Treatment: Some accidents may require secondary treatment as a result of infliction serious injury. 4.2.2. Recommendation to the school The student goes to the internship class are owned by the university or the school and are given to the companies that use or teach us throughout the fore month. So, before and after we go to the companies the school must fulfill the following:  Evaluating and supervising student as they are in the site by sending mentors on time.  Giving courses that are appropriate for the site work before the internship class is commenced like report writing, quantity survey etc.  Working with the companies closely to address more knowledge to the student.  Sending the student on time to their hosting company.  Organizing students those reside in the same place to create a team playing skill and provide group working environment in order to share ideas.  Budget for the internship is not enough to student and it is not updated and not parallel with the price right now. Mostly those listed problem challenges the student at site and if the school can erase those challenges the intern student can do every work without being stressed and worries.
  • HU ioT school of CUENg. Final internship report Written by: ESMAEL ARAGAW 2013/14 Page 46 Hosting company: K2N ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY PLC. REFERENCE 1. Ministry of work and urban development proclamation ―Ethiopian building code of standard 2‖ Addis Ababa, ethiopia,1995 2. Frederick S. Merritt Jonathan T. Ricketts ―Building design and construction hand book‖ McGraw hill, six edition, 2001 3. W.f. CHEN, J.y.Richard LieW ―The civil engineering hand book‖ crc press, second edition, 2003 4. Su.PILLA, devadas MENON “reinforced concrete design‖ McGraw hill, second edition, 2003 5. Madan MEHTA, Walter SCARBOROUGH and Diane ARMPRIEST “building construction principle, materials and system‖, prentice hall, second edition, 2013 6. Construction material, geotechnical, quantity survey and structural handouts 7. www.k2narchitectureandengineeringconsultancyplc/facebook.com 8. www.wekipedia.com http://www.k2narchitectureandengineeringconsultancyplc/facebook.com http://www.wekipedia.com/
  • HU ioT school of CUENg. Final internship report Written by: ESMAEL ARAGAW 2013/14 Page 47 Hosting company: K2N ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY PLC. APPENDIX Ebcs Ethiopian building code of standard fck characteristic compressive strength of concrete fcd design compressive strength of concrete γc partial safety factor for concrete γs partial safety factor for steel C-5 concrete that have 5mpa compressive strength C-20 concrete that have 20mpa compressive strength FD field dry density Ld laboratory dry density
  • HU ioT school of CUENg. Final internship report Written by: ESMAEL ARAGAW 2013/14 Page 48 Hosting company: K2N ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY PLC. ESMAEL ARAGAW Phone number +251910636957 or +251935449326 Email address borntochallenge@yahoo.com or esmuchallenge@gmail.com mailto:borntochallenge@yahoo.com mailto:esmuchallenge@gmail.com School of civil and urban engineering declaration main body
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